Human C-reactive protein accentuates macrophage activity in biobreeding diabetic rats.

Laboratory of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; VA Medical Center, Mather, CA, USA.
Journal of diabetes and its complications (Impact Factor: 2.11). 04/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.03.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a pro-inflammatory state characterized by high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, there is a paucity of data examining the role of CRP in promoting the pro-inflammatory state of diabetes. Thus, we examined the pro-inflammatory effects of human CRP using spontaneously diabetic bio-breeding (BB) rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats (n=9/group) were injected with Human serum albumin (huSA) or Human CRP (hCRP, 20mg/kg body weight; i.p.) for 3 consecutive days. Blood and peritoneal macrophages (MØ) were obtained following euthanasia. Peritoneal macrophages were used for measuring superoxide anion release, NF-κB DNA binding activity, proinflammatory mediator secretion. RESULTS: hCRP administration resulted in significantly increased superoxide anion production, along with increased release of cytokines/chemokines, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and Tissue Factor (TF) activity in diabetic rats compared to huSA. hCRP-treated BB rat MØ showed significant induction of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, PKC-delta and p47 phox expression and NF-κB compared to huSA. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our data suggest that human CRP exacerbates in-vivo the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and procoagulant states of diabetes predominantly via increased macrophage activity and this could have implications with respect to vascular complications and anti-inflammatory therapies.

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    ABSTRACT: Higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) predict cardiovascular events and also portend a poorer prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Much in-vitro and in-vivo data support a role for CRP in atherogenesis. Using the one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method we have successfully identified peptides against human CRP that inhibit its biological effects in-vitro. Hence we tested the effect of the best characterized inhibitor (CRP-i2) on the effects of CRP in an appropriate animal model, Wistar rats. Treatment with CRP resulted in significant increase in superoxide anion, nuclear factor kappaB (NFκb) activity and the release of biomarkers of inflammation from macrophages compared to Wistar rats treated with human albumin (HuSA). Pre-treatment with the inhibitor, CRP-i2, resulted in a significant reduction in CRP induced superoxide anion, NFκb activity and biomarkers of inflammation. Also, there were no observed clinical or laboratory related adverse effects. We demonstrate that our novel peptide inhibitor attenuates the proinflammatory effects of CRP in-vivo. Future studies will examine the long-term effects of this inhibitor on vascular pathobiology.
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