Predicting participation in and successful outcome of a penile rehabilitation programme using a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor with a vacuum erection device after radical prostatectomy

Division of Urologic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Duke Prostate Center Department of Radiation Oncology and Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
BJU International (Impact Factor: 3.13). 04/2012; 110(11C). DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11168.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The role of the vacuum erection device (VED) has increased with its use in combined therapy with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) for penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy. The advantages of the VED are non-invasive, cost-effective, and a possibility of preventing shrinkage of penis length. Albeit current widespread use of penile rehabilitation programmes for post-RP erectile dysfunction, independent predictors for the rehabilitation participants, as well as for its treatment success have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we have added several new predictors for rehabilitation participation, e.g. African-Americans and higher preoperative sexual function. Conversely, higher preoperative PSA concentrations and the presence of positive surgical margins were predictors for avoidance of rehabilitation. Notably, there was a primary surgeon difference, which had a trend for predicting outcome of the rehabilitation among the participants, implying their surgical technique and follow-up might influence success of the rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: •  To investigate baseline demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of men who participate in our penile rehabilitation programme after radical prostatectomy (RP). •  To determine predictors for participation in rehabilitation, as well as successful rehabilitation outcome using multivariable logistic regression analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  We analysed data on 2345 consecutive patients who underwent RP between 2001 and 2009 in our institution. •  The decision to participate in penile rehabilitation using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) with a vacuum erection device (VED) was based on the patient's choice after post-RP discussions. •  Rehabilitation success was defined using the following criteria: (i) patients who continued the penile rehabilitation programme and did not switch treatment from PDE5i to other erectile aids, (ii) success was noted in men who had an Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) sexual function (SF) score of >75% of the patient's baseline EPIC score, and (iii) patients who answered that they achieved adequate erections with a PDE5i. •  Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with treatment participation and its success. RESULTS: •  Of 676 patients, 354 (53.2%) men participated in a penile rehabilitation programme. Among 329 rehabilitation participants with available data, 96 (29.2%) had treatment success. •  In multivariable regression analysis, African-Americans (odds ratio [OR] 3.47, P < 0.001), and higher preoperative SF (OR 1.02, P < 0.001) were associated with participation in rehabilitation. •  Higher preoperative PSA concentration (OR 0.50, P= 0.004) and presence of positive surgical margins (OR 0.68, P= 0.042) were found to be independent predictors for non-participation in the rehabilitation. •  For rehabilitation outcomes, being older at surgery (OR 0.93, P= 0.001) and adjuvant therapy (OR 0.34, P= 0.047) had a negative association with successful outcome. •  There was a trend in the relationship between primary surgeon and rehabilitation success (OR 1.05, P= 0.053) CONCLUSIONS: •  Those patients who have risk factors, e.g. adverse prostate cancer features, need to be carefully counselled and encouraged to participate in the penile rehabilitation programme. •  Clinicians could lead patients toward successful outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques and rehabilitation are provided.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in sexual bother (SB) following radical prostatectomy (RP) negatively affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of prostate cancer survivors. However, post-operative SB tends to be neglected whereas sexual function (SF) is thoroughly assessed in clinical practice and few studies have focused on and evaluated patients' SB. We retrospectively reviewed 2 345 consecutive patients who underwent RP between 2001 and 2009 at a single institution. SF and SB were assessed using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires. We stratified our cohort by SB recovery and post-operative SF status, including a subset of men who recovered SB despite persistent post-RP sexual dysfunction. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors for men who have SB recovery. Of 319 eligible patients, 133 (41.7%) recovered their SB at a mean of 20 months after RP. Among the 133 men who demonstrated SB recovery, 109 had post-operative sexual dysfunction. Patients with SB recovery despite post-RP sexual dysfunction were more likely to be old (p = 0.004), to have higher clinical T stage (p < 0.001), to have more non-nerve-sparing RP (p < 0.001), to have lower pre-operative EPIC-SF/SB scores (p < 0.001), to have more extracapsular extension (p = 0.031) and to be PDE5i non-users after surgery (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, predictors for this subset were lower comorbidity (OR 0.62, p = 0.043), higher clinical cancer stage (OR 2.35, p = 0.026), worse pre-operative SF (OR 0.98, p = 0.010), SB (OR 0.98, p < 0.010) and no PDE5i use (OR 0.37, p = 0.002); age was not related (OR 0.99, p = 0.555). As SB can influence patients' overall HRQoL, expectations of SB recovery should be provided to patients in the same way that SF recovery is presented. This study may help clinicians to discuss SB with patients and assess their potential for SB recovery following RP.
    Andrology 03/2013; 1(2):256-61. DOI:10.1111/j.2047-2927.2012.00036.x · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop a management strategy (rehabilitation programme) for postsurgical erectile dysfunction (ED) among men experiencing ED associated with treatment of prostate, bladder or rectal cancer that is suitable for use in a UK NHS healthcare context. PubMed literature searches of ED management together with a survey of 13 experts in the management of ED from across the UK were conducted. Data from 37 articles and completed questionnaires were collated. The results discussed in this study demonstrate improved objective and subjective clinical outcomes for physical parameters, sexual satisfaction, and rates of both spontaneous erections and those associated with ED treatment strategies. Based on the literature and survey analysis, recommendations are proposed for the standardisation of management strategies employed for postsurgical ED.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 11/2013; 68(5). DOI:10.1111/ijcp.12338 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The experience of prostate cancer is for most men a major life stress with the psychological burden of this disease falling more heavily on those who are younger. Despite this, being young as it applies to prostate cancer is not yet clearly defined with varied chronological approaches applied. However, men's responses to health crises are closely bound to life course and masculinities from which social roles emerge. This paper applied qualitative methodology (structured focus groups and semistructured interviews with expert informants) using interpretative phenomenological analysis to define what it means to be young and have prostate cancer. Structured focus groups were held with 26 consumer advisors (men diagnosed with prostate cancer who provide support to other men with prostate cancer or raise community awareness) and health professionals. As well, 15 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and in their 40s, 50s, or 60s participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants discussed the attributes that describe a young man with prostate cancer and the experience of being young and diagnosed with prostate cancer. Chronological definitions of a young man were absent or inconsistent. Masculine constructions of what it means to be a young man and life course characteristics appear more relevant to defining young as it applies to prostate cancer compared with chronological age. These findings have implications for better understanding the morbidities associated with this illness, and in designing interventions that are oriented to life course and helping young men reconstruct their identities after prostate cancer.
    American journal of men's health 04/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.1177/1557988314529991 · 1.15 Impact Factor