Prostatic involvement by urothelial carcinoma in patients with bladder cancer and their implications in the clinical practice
Servicio de Urología, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, España.Actas urologicas españolas (Impact Factor: 1.02). 04/2012; 36(9):545-553. DOI: 10.1016/j.acuroe.2012.02.004
OBJECTIVES: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a multifocal disease that may develop in any location of the urinary tract, including the prostate. We analyze the types of prostate involvement due to UC, their diagnosis, risk factors and the clinical implications of this entity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of original, review articles and publications related to prostate involvement due to UC. The study included works published in the period of 1985-2011, most of which were obtained from the search in PubMed. RESULTS: Prostate involvement due to UC has been observed frequently in both non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) series and prolonged follow-up (39%) as in radical cystectomy series (15-48%). Prostatic involvement may occur in the mucosa and ducts (superficial involvement) or prostate stroma (invasive involvement), a fact that has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Stromal involvement may have both a bladder and intraurethral origin. Carcinoma in situ, multifocality, bladder neck/trigone cancer, and previous history of tumor recurrence are the factors that have been m ore consistently associated to prostate involvement due to UC. The incidence of prostatic involvement by UC in patients with NMIBC increases over time when risk factors exist. In these cases, a prostatic urethral biopsy should be performed during the follow-up. Conservative treatment with transurethral resection and BCG is possible in case of superficial involvement of the prostatic urethra, assuming its risk of progression. Patients subjects to cystectomy and with prostate involvement due to UC have a greater risk of urethral recurrence. The elevated incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostatic involvement by UC in cystectomy specimens makes it necessary to be very selective when indicating prostate-sparing cystectomy. Chemotherapy may be an option in an attempt to improve survival of patients with prostatic stromal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic involvement by UC is not uncommon and it has important implications in the management of patients with NMIBC and in those who have an indication for or have undergone radical cystectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Determining which patients are at risk for prostatic urethral involvement of urothelial carcinoma may alter assessment of the prostatic urethra before radical cystectomy and ultimately influence the choice of urinary diversion. We determined risk factors predictive of prostatic urethral involvement using preoperative bladder tumor characteristics in male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy due to urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We reviewed 192 consecutive radical cystectomy specimens from men with transitional cell carcinoma from June 1995 to June 2000. The prostatic urethra in each specimen was analyzed and urethral involvement was characterized as carcinoma in situ, intraductal invasion or prostatic stromal invasion. We then examined which clinical bladder tumor characteristics correlated with the incidence and extent of prostatic urethral involvement by performing multiple variable analysis. Prostatic urethral involvement was evident in 30 of the 192 patients (15.6%). Of the 80 patients with carcinoma in situ in the bladder 25 (31.3%) had concomitant prostatic urethral involvement with carcinoma, whereas only 5 (4.5%) of the 112 with no evidence of carcinoma in situ had prostatic urethral involvement. Likewise 25 of the 72 patients (34.7%) with multifocal tumors had concomitant prostatic urethral involvement with carcinoma, whereas only 5 (4.2%) of the 120 with no evidence of multifocality had prostatic urethral involvement. In the multiple variable logistic regression model the odds of prostatic urethral involvement were 12 and 15-fold greater when carcinoma in situ and tumor multifocality were present, respectively. Carcinoma in situ and/or tumor multifocality are valuable prognostic indicators of prostatic urethral involvement. However, in their absence prostatic urethral involvement was rare. Ultimately the extent of prostatic urethral involvement may influence decisions, such as the choice of urinary diversion and need for urethrectomy, in men undergoing radical cystectomy.The Journal of Urology 03/2002; 167(2 Pt 1):502-5. DOI:10.1097/00005392-200202000-00012 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review understaging and outcome of patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for high risk superficial bladder cancer after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) failure. We carried out a retrospective study of 62 cases in which RC was indicated for clinical stage Tis, Ta, T1 transitional cell bladder tumors that failed transurethral resection (TUR) and BCG treatment. We used BCG (81 mg/Connaught BCG) in patients with superficial grade 3 tumors and CIS. We considered BCG failure a high-grade recurrence at 3 months of the first BCG course or after 2 courses. RC indications, correlation between their clinical and pathological stage and the ensuing progress were analyzed. We assessed the existence of any pre-cystectomy clinical or pathological factor related to understaging and survival. RC was performed in 22 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) (35%), 7 with Ta (11,2%), 31 with T1 (50%), and 2 with Tx tumors (3%). All 62 but one were high-grade tumors (grade 3 and/or CIS). Tumor was clinically understaged with stages pT2 or greater on the RC specimen in 17 patients (27%). The presence of tumor in the prostatic urethra at the moment of endoscopic staging before RC was the only factor associated with clinical understaging (p=0.003) and shorter survival (p<0.0002). Five-year disease-specific survival rate was significantly lower in understaged (38%) as compared with not-understaged patients (90%) after a median follow-up of 40-months (range 1-142) (p=0.006). Overall five-year disease-specific survival was 79%. RC should be performed prior to progression in high risk superficial tumors that fail after TUR and BCG. In patients with clinical and pathological nonmuscle invasive disease, RC provides an excellent disease-free survival. One third of patients with HRSBT who underwent RC after BCG failure were understaged and had a shorter survival. Tumor in the prostatic urethra at endoscopic staging was the only factor associated to understaging and shorter survival.European Urology 08/2005; 48(1):53-9; discussion 59. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2005.03.021 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) may involve urethral mucosa, ducts, acini and stroma of the gland. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for mucosal prostatic urethral (PU) involvement in superficial TCC of the bladder. The data of 340 consecutive male patients with the diagnosis of primary superficial TCC of the bladder who were treated at our institution were reviewed. Median age of the patients was 64 years and median follow-up was 66 months. The impact of pathological stage, grade, tumour multiplicity and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) on mucosal PU involvement were evaluated. Twenty one patients (6.2%) had mucosal involvement of the PU and concomitant multifocal TCC of the bladder. Of those, 12 patients (3.5%) had macroscopic mucosal involvement of the PU while the other 9 patients (2.7%) had microscopic tumour. Increased pathological stage, grade and tumour multiplicity were found to be risk factors for mucosal PU involvement in patients with superficial bladder cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that only the tumour multiplicity was found to be an independent risk factor for mucosal PU involvement by TCC (p=0.001). The incidence of mucosal PU involvement increases as the stage, grade and number of tumours increase in patients with superficial TCC of the bladder. We recommend PU sampling particularly in patients with multiple bladder tumours which may have an impact on further management of these patients.European Urology 12/2005; 48(5):760-3. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2005.05.021 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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