Prostatic involvement by urothelial carcinoma in patients with bladder cancer and their implications in the clinical practice
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a multifocal disease that may develop in any location of the urinary tract, including the prostate. We analyze the types of prostate involvement due to UC, their diagnosis, risk factors and the clinical implications of this entity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of original, review articles and publications related to prostate involvement due to UC. The study included works published in the period of 1985-2011, most of which were obtained from the search in PubMed. RESULTS: Prostate involvement due to UC has been observed frequently in both non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) series and prolonged follow-up (39%) as in radical cystectomy series (15-48%). Prostatic involvement may occur in the mucosa and ducts (superficial involvement) or prostate stroma (invasive involvement), a fact that has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Stromal involvement may have both a bladder and intraurethral origin. Carcinoma in situ, multifocality, bladder neck/trigone cancer, and previous history of tumor recurrence are the factors that have been m ore consistently associated to prostate involvement due to UC. The incidence of prostatic involvement by UC in patients with NMIBC increases over time when risk factors exist. In these cases, a prostatic urethral biopsy should be performed during the follow-up. Conservative treatment with transurethral resection and BCG is possible in case of superficial involvement of the prostatic urethra, assuming its risk of progression. Patients subjects to cystectomy and with prostate involvement due to UC have a greater risk of urethral recurrence. The elevated incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostatic involvement by UC in cystectomy specimens makes it necessary to be very selective when indicating prostate-sparing cystectomy. Chemotherapy may be an option in an attempt to improve survival of patients with prostatic stromal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic involvement by UC is not uncommon and it has important implications in the management of patients with NMIBC and in those who have an indication for or have undergone radical cystectomy.