"In the present study, agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure established by Gould and Magallanes-Cedeno (1998) was followed with some modifications adopted at CEMB as described by Rao (2009), Bakhsh (2010) and Khan et al. (2011). The transformed plants were analyzed for DNA integration and expression through PCR and SDS-PAGE (Fig. 3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatio-temporal expression of an insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac) in pre existing transgenic lines of transgenic cotton was studied. Seasonal decline in expression of Cry1Ac differed significantly among different cotton lines tested in the field conditions. The leaves of the Bt cotton plants were found to have the highest levels of toxin expression followed by squares, bolls, anthers and petals. Expression of the gene decreased consistently with the age of plants. Toxin expression in fruiting parts was not enough to confer full resistance against bollworms. The reduction in efficacy of transgenic cotton plants late in the season was attributed to reduction in promoter activity. For this purpose, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit (rbcS) promoter was isolated from Gossypium arboreum that was further cloned upstream of an insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac) in expression vector pCAMBIA 1301. A local cotton cultivar NIAB-846 was transformed with Cry1Ac driven by rbcS promoter. The same cotton cultivar was also transformed with Cry1Ac gene driven by 35SCaMV promoter to compare the expression pattern of insecticidal gene under two different promoters. The results showed that rbcS is an efficient promoter to drive the expression of Cry1Ac gene consistent throughout the life of cotton plant as compared to 35S promoter. The use of tissue specific promoter is also useful for addressing the biosafety issues as the promoter activity is limited to green parts of plants, hence no gene expression in roots, cotton seed and other cotton products and by products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate inheritance pattern of insecticidal gene (Cry1Ab) in F1 and F2 generations derived from six combinations of crosses made between two transgenic lines (CEMB-3 and CEMB-11) and two non transgenic lines (MNH-93 and CIM-482). PCR, southern blot, western dot blot assay and lab biotoxicity assay were used to confirm the gene integration and expression of insecticidal gene in successive generations. The insecticidal gene was stably integrated in the genome of all F1 plants showing the dominant nature of introduced gene (cry1Ab). Furthermore, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, heritability and genetic advance studies of Bt gene were also conducted. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis were estimated for five characters i.e. cotton yield per plant, no. of bolls per plant, boll weight, ginning out turn % age and laboratory bioassay results. The heterosis and heterobeltiosis ranged from—15.19 to 107.07% and 18.58 to 98.79%, respectively for yield per plant; from −20.34 to 81.36% and −20.34 to 81.36%, respectively for number of bolls per plant; from -6.96 to 21.38% and −9.30 to 9.99%, respectively for boll weight; from 13.02 to 26.44% and −0.52 to 26.17%, respectively for ginning outturn; and from −8.11 to 36.23% and −5.56 to 23.68%, respectively for mortality % age of Heliothis larvae in laboratory bioassays. The Broad Sense Heritability and Genetic Advance for insect resistance in Bt versus non-Bt crosses were calculated. Both of these were high in four out of six hybrids. Our data recorded showed that these transgenic lines are an excellent source of germplasm to be used in conventional breeding programme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.
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