Life cycle assessment of integrated circuit packaging technologies
ABSTRACT Background, aim and scope
Nanostructured polymer particles are produced to be used in ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale packaging (CSP). The technology could replace conventional BGA and CSP metal balls, and the hypothesis is that the shift could be eco-efficient as polymer core particles increase the reliability. For the first time, these particles are environmentally evaluated.
Materials and methods
The change in GWP100 and Eco-Indicator’99 (H) scores when replacing traditional component packaging, here quad flat pack to BGA/CSP, was explored both on component and printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) level. This was followed by comparisons between BGA packages using different types of metal-plated monodispersed polymer particle (MPP) balls and conventional balls, respectively.
Results and discussion
For BGAs, the silicon (Si) die dominates CO2e emissions, but for Eco-Indicator’99(H), solder balls are not negligible. Excluding the Si die and component assembly, the LFBGA-84 to WCSP-64 would reduce CO2e by about 98% and Eco-Indicator’99 (H) by about 90%. Overall, for BGA–256 using same size balls, gold-plated MPP technology decreases the Eco-Indicator’99(H) score by about 25% compared to Pb-based or Pb-free balls. Gold production dominated GWP100 and Eco-Indicator’99 (H) for the gold-plated MPP. Each microsystem is unique, and new environmental impact estimations must be done for the sub-structures of each electronic device. Screening process-sum life cycle assessment (LCA) gives similar understanding of impacts as resource productivity methods. Even though the metal mass per ball is greatly reduced, it is a weak indicator of environmental impacts which are driven by each material’s specific environmental characteristics.
The ball share of the BGA-256 GWP100 and Eco-Indicator’99 (H) score is small, and the BGA/CSP producers can marginally improve the environmental performance by focusing on the balls. On a comparable IC packaging basis, the introduction of WCSP packaging technology implies a significant environmental footprint reduction. On PCBA level, the contribution of BGA balls is negligible. Results for metal-plated MPP BGA balls suggest that gold usage is the key environmental performance indicator of interest.
Recommendations and perspectives
Even though WCSP clearly reduces the component level impacts, the PCBA (board) level impact could increase as the CSP miniaturisation is paralleled with more PWB layers. This effect should be included in further system expansions. For LCA, in general, update of all LCIA methods, which include ozone depletion, with the latest results for dinitrogen monoxide is needed.
Keywords Ball grid array – Chip scale package – Electronic device – Integrated circuit – Monodispersed polymer particle – Printed circuit board assembly – Screening LCA
Article: The Effect of Revised Characterization Indices for N2O and CO2 in Life Cycle Assessment of Optical Fiber Networks – The Case of Ozone Depletion and Aquatic Acidification[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The general trend for fixed broadband is that FTTx will overtake ADSL platforms and the number of FTTx subscribers is increasing exponentially. Moreover, it is likely that the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of dinitrogen oxide (N2O) and the aquatic acidification potential (AAP) of CO2 have been underestimated in LCA studies. The aim of this study is for the first time to assess the ODP and AAP of different FTTx network deployments in Italy adding the most recent characterization factors for N2O and CO2. An LCA case study was conducted covering three FTTx deployments (FTTC is compared to FTTB and FTTH) for 10,000 homes during one year in Italy. The focus is primarily on ODP and AP results in different life cycle phases. The ODP results suggest, using 0.017 kg/kg instead of 0 kg/kg as CFC-11e factor for N2O, for the greenfield/high power customer premise equipment (CPE) scenario, that FTTB, FTTC, and FTTH all rises from around 80–100 gram to around 600–700 gram CFC-11e/year dominated by the use and deployment stages. For AAP, with 1.752 kg/kg as SO2e factor for CO2 instead of 0 kg/kg, the rise is from 5–6 tons to 1,500–1,800 tons SO2e/year. The weight of the use stage is increasing with these new characterization indices. For FTTC controlling the power of the CPE is more important than the technique used for deployment. However, for FTTB and FTTH the deployment technique becomes almost as important as the power mode. Concerning FTTH, the main drivers for CFC-11e footprint are the electricity usage of the home gateways (HGWs), their manufacturing, and the use of diesel trucks in traditional civil works and mini-trench deployment. The inclusion of “average” bandwidth gives an advantage for FTTH as more data can be transferred more efficient and faster. For brownfield deployment in Italy (low power CPEs), FTTH architecture has the lowest amount of total CFC-11e emissions (appr. 130 grams). One of the most important criteria, from ozone depletion point of view, when choosing an FTTx network, is whether fiber has been deployed or not. Including the ODP factor for N2O increases the ODP score by 430–660% for the present systems. The increase for AAP is dramatic and shall be interpreted as a suggestion to include CO2 acidification in further LCIA research.Journal of Green Engineering. 10/2012; 3(1-ISSN: 1904-4720 (Print Version), ISSN: 2245-4586 (Online Version)):13-32.
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ABSTRACT: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly being used in electronics products. CNTs have unique chemical and nanotoxicological properties, which are potentially dangerous to public health and the environment. This report presents the most recent findings of CNTs’ toxicity and discusses aspects related to incineration, recycling and potential remediation strategies including chemical and biological remediation possibilities. Our analysis shows that recycling CNTs may be challenging given their physiochemical properties and that available strategies such as power-gasification methods, biological degradation and chemical degradation may need to be combined with pre-handling routines for hazardous materials. The discussion provides the background knowledge for legislative measures concerning specialized waste handling and recycling procedures/facilities for electronics products containing CNTs.Challenges. 05/2013; 4(1):75-85.