Viral Epidemiology and Severity of Respiratory Infections in Infants in 2009 A Prospective Study
ABSTRACT Viral respiratory infections are common in infants and can be severe. The new pandemic influenza virus H1N1v2009 was feared to cause particularly severe outcomes.
This study aimed at evaluating the impact of H1N1v2009 on the viral epidemiology, the clinical presentation and the severity of respiratory infections in infants.
This prospective epidemiologic study included all infants <2 years of age, both inpatients and outpatients, presenting with respiratory symptoms, from November 2009 through April 2010, at the pediatric emergency department of the University Hospital of Caen, France. A nasal swab was taken for viral detection and analyzed by immunofluorescence and, if negative, polymerase chain reaction. Severe respiratory infection was defined by a score of respiratory severity.
One thousand twenty-one infectious episodes with a respiratory sample met inclusion criteria. Eight hundred thirty-four samples (81.7%) were positive. The viruses with the highest incidence were the respiratory syncytial virus (34.2%), the rhinoviruses (23.9%), the coronaviruses (9.3%) and H1N1v2009 (7.7%). Of all infections, 28.6% were severe and more frequent in infants with risk factors. H1N1v2009 infections had a low risk of severe respiratory disease (odds ratios = 0.15) and hospitalization (odds ratios = 0.40) compared with the other viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus infections had a high risk of respiratory severity (odds ratios = 7.85) and were responsible for 71.4% of admissions to the intensive care unit.
Despite the modest impact of H1N1v2009 observed in this study, further surveillance is needed to detect virological factors that may increase its severity.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) contribute substantially to pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevention of these infections in childhood is a very important public health challenge. Previous systematic reviews, including both adult and childhood populations, have reported that probiotics seem promising, but with modest evidence. This study aimed to focus on prophylactic probiotic use in the prevention of URTIs in childhood. Methods: Relevant trials on two databases were identified in a systematic review, from inception to June 2014. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. In this review, the effects of probiotics, particularly the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, on the incidence and symptom scores of URTI in otherwise healthy children were evaluated for the first time. This review comprises 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) applied to a pediatric population with high-quality methodology. Results: This systematic review suggests that probiotics in immunocompetent children have a modest effect both in diminishing the incidence of URTIs and the severity of the infection symptoms. Conclusions: At least one beneficial effect of prophylactic probiotic was observed in the majority of RCTs. Even a minimal reduction of 5 - 10% in the incidence of URTIs would have an important clinical and economic mpact on societies. Furthermore, the long-term administration of probiotics appeared to have a good safety profile in childhood and none of the studies reported any serious adverse events related to the probiotic strain.Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 11/2014; 15(1):1-12. DOI:10.1517/14712598.2015.980233 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima, Peru in infants with a birth weight ≤ 1,500 g followed from birth hospital discharge up to 1 year of age to determine the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations. We enrolled 222 infants from March of 2009 to March of 2010 infants: 48 infants with a birth weight < 1,000 g and 174 infants with a birth weight of 1,000-1,500 g (birth weight = 1,197 ± 224 g; gestational age = 30.1 ± 2.6 weeks). There were 936 episodes of respiratory infections; the incidence of respiratory infections during the first 1 year of life was 5.7 episodes/child-years. The incidence of RSV respiratory infections that required emergency room management was 103.9 per 1,000 child-years, and the incidence of RSV hospitalizations was 116.2 per 1,000 child-years (244.9 in infants with a birth weight < 1,000 g and 88.9 in infants 1,000-1,500 g; P < 0.05). The incidence of RSV respiratory infections that required emergency management or hospitalization is high among pre-mature infants in Lima.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2014; 91(5). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0648 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in Africa. The circulation of viruses classically implicated in ARIs is poorly known in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to identify the respiratory viruses present in children admitted to or consulting at the pediatric hospital in Ouagadougou. Methods: From July 2010 to July 2011, we tested nasal aspirates of 209 children with upper or lower respiratory infection for main respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, influenza A, B and C, rhinovirus/enterovirus), by immunofluorescence locally in Ouagadougou, and by PCR in France. Bacteria have also been investigated in 97 samples. Results: 153 children (73.2%) carried at least one virus and 175 viruses were detected. Rhinoviruses/enteroviruses were most frequently detected (rhinovirus n = 88; enterovirus n = 38) and were found to circulate throughout the year. An epidemic of RSV infections (n = 25) was identified in September/October, followed by an epidemic of influenza virus (n = 13), mostly H1N1pdm09. This epidemic occurred during the period of the year in which nighttime temperatures and humidity were at their lowest. Other viruses tested were detected only sporadically. Twenty-two viral co-infections were observed. Bacteria were detected in 29/97 samples with 22 viral/bacterial co-infections. Conclusions: This study, the first of its type in Burkina Faso, warrants further investigation to confirm the seasonality of RSV infection and to improve local diagnosis of influenza. The long-term objective is to optimize therapeutic management of infected children.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110435. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110435 · 3.53 Impact Factor