Total daily physical activity and the risk of AD and cognitive decline in older adults

Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 04/2012; 78(17):1323-9. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182535d35
Source: PubMed


Studies examining the link between objective measures of total daily physical activity and incident Alzheimer disease (AD) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that an objective measure of total daily physical activity predicts incident AD and cognitive decline.
Total daily exercise and nonexercise physical activity was measured continuously for up to 10 days with actigraphy (Actical®; Philips Healthcare, Bend, OR) from 716 older individuals without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a prospective, observational cohort study. All participants underwent structured annual clinical examination including a battery of 19 cognitive tests.
During an average follow-up of about 4 years, 71 subjects developed clinical AD. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, and education, total daily physical activity was associated with incident AD (hazard ratio = 0.477; 95% confidence interval 0.273-0.832). The association remained after adjusting for self-report physical, social, and cognitive activities, as well as current level of motor function, depressive symptoms, chronic health conditions, and APOE allele status. In a linear mixed-effect model, the level of total daily physical activity was associated with the rate of global cognitive decline (estimate 0.033, SE 0.012, p = 0.007).
A higher level of total daily physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of AD.

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Available from: Patricia A Boyle, Apr 02, 2014
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    • "It is hypothesized that physical activity (PA) helps to preserve and maintain cognitive function and decrease the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease [1] [2] [3] [4]. Change in cognitive ability has been associated with brain atrophy [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β= -0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions.
    Behavioural brain research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.005 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, our group examined GM changes in structural MRI data from elderly subjects with different degrees of cardiovascular risk (de Toledo Ferraz Alves et al., 2011) using the Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk [FCHDR (Grundy et al., 1998; Wilson et al., 1998)] score, a composite index comprising five clinical factors (age, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and cholesterol levels ). Given recent findings regarding cardiovascular risk effects on cognitive performance (Mosconi, 2005; Obisesan et al., 2008; Fitzpatrick et al., 2009; Purandare, 2009; Scarmeas et al., 2009; Buchman et al., 2012), the FCHDR score has presented excellent potential for investigations involving brain imaging (Elias et al., 2003; Jeerakathil et al., 2004; Massaro et al., 2004; Seshadri et al., 2004; DeCarli et al., 2005; Romero et al., 2009). For the study by de Toledo Ferraz Alves et al. (2011), dementiafree individuals aged from 66 to 75 years were recruited from the database " São Paulo Aging and Health Study " (SPAH) (Scazufca and Seabra, 2008; Scazufca et al., 2008) and divided into three subgroups (high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk) according to their FCHDR scores and gender (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymp-tomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies) in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardio-vascular risk from structural brain images) enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: (i) we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease). (ii) When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. (iii) We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 12/2014; 6(300). DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00300 · 4.00 Impact Factor
    • "It can also improve patients' sense of self-worth (Ruthirakuhan et al., 2012). Participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of dementia (Akbaraly et al., 2009; Buchman et al., 2012; Scarmeas et al., 2001, 2009; Verghese et al., 2003). The meta-analysis of Sofi and colleagues showed that subjects who performed physical activity at baseline had a significantly reduced risk of cognitive decline during follow-up (Sofi et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective.
    Ageing Research Reviews 10/2014; 20. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2014.10.003 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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