Prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed European wild boar.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate in farmed European wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. A sampling frame was compiled based on a national record of wild boar farmers, and 32 farms were surveyed. Serological screening was carried out on 303 samples from animals slaughtered between 2005 and 2008, and random-effect logistic regression models were developed for pathogens with a 'non-zero' prevalence. The apparent animal prevalence for PPV, PCV2, and L. intracellularis was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-52%), 51.1% (95% CI 45-57%) and 59.2% (95% CI 54-65%), respectively. Apparent farm seroprevalence rates for PPV, PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis were 56.3% (95% CI, 39-73%), 21.9% (95% CI, 8-36%) and 78.1% (95% CI, 64-92%), respectively. No antibodies were detected against SIV, ADV, CSFV, SVDV, TGEV, PRSSV, Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., or M. hyopneumoniae. Increasing herd size, proximity to dense populations of domestic swine and later sampling times within the survey period were found to be risk factors. Overall, the seroprevalence of these pathogens in farmed wild boar was similar to that in the farmed domestic pig population in Finland. However, it is possible that the rearing of wild boars in fenced estates may predispose them to particular infections, as reflected in higher antibody titres.
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ABSTRACT: Basic variables of the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for porcine parvovirus antibody were investigated. Nonspecific serum inhibitors were satisfactorily removed without loss of specific antibody when undiluted serum was adsorbed with 25 percent kaolin in borate saline at pH 9.0. Natural haemagglutinins in test serums could be completely removed using 0.1 ml of packed erythrocytes to 0.6 ml of kaolin treated serums. Adsorption of prediluted serum resulted in a depression of specific antibody titres. Highest HI titres were obtained using guinea pig erythrocytes, following incubation of virus-serum mixtures for 18 hours at 4 degrees C, 3 hours at 25 degrees C or 2 hours at 37 degrees C. Micro- and macro-tests gave comparable HI titres.Australian Veterinary Journal 10/1976; 52(9):422-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor