The aim of this study was to estimate in farmed European wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. A sampling frame was compiled based on a national record of wild boar farmers, and 32 farms were surveyed. Serological screening was carried out on 303 samples from animals slaughtered between 2005 and 2008, and random-effect logistic regression models were developed for pathogens with a 'non-zero' prevalence. The apparent animal prevalence for PPV, PCV2, and L. intracellularis was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-52%), 51.1% (95% CI 45-57%) and 59.2% (95% CI 54-65%), respectively. Apparent farm seroprevalence rates for PPV, PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis were 56.3% (95% CI, 39-73%), 21.9% (95% CI, 8-36%) and 78.1% (95% CI, 64-92%), respectively. No antibodies were detected against SIV, ADV, CSFV, SVDV, TGEV, PRSSV, Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., or M. hyopneumoniae. Increasing herd size, proximity to dense populations of domestic swine and later sampling times within the survey period were found to be risk factors. Overall, the seroprevalence of these pathogens in farmed wild boar was similar to that in the farmed domestic pig population in Finland. However, it is possible that the rearing of wild boars in fenced estates may predispose them to particular infections, as reflected in higher antibody titres.
"The results of the current study show that L. intracellularis infections also occur in wild boar populations in Asia. The previously reported prevalence of L. intracellularis determined by PCR analysis of intestinal tissues and/or serological examination of wild boars were as follows: 59.2% (95% CI: 54-65%) in farmed European wild boars , 20.6% in wild boars in Germany , and 9.1% in wild boars in the Czech Republic . The seroprevalence of this study in the wild boar population in the ROK was lower than that (56.4%) in the domestic pig population in ROK . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of the wild boar as a reservoir of Lawsonia intracellularis was assessed by investigating the seroprevalence of this pathogen among wild boars in the Republic of Korea. The extent of exposure to L. intracellularis among wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) was monitored by a country-wide serological survey using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.
In this study, antibodies to L. intracellularis were observed in 165 of 716 clinically healthy wild boars tested. The overall apparent prevalence calculated directly from the sample and the true prevalence calculated based on the accuracy of the test method were 23.0% (95% confidence interval: 20.0-26.3%) and 25.6% (95% confidence interval: 23.9-27.2%), respectively. Serologically positive animals were found in all the tested provinces.
Our results confirm that L. intracellularis is present in the wild boar population worldwide, even in Far East Asia. Despite the high seroprevalence shown in wild boars, further studies are warranted to evaluate their potential as a reservoir species because seroprevalence does not prove ongoing infection nor shedding of the bacteria in amounts sufficient to infect other animals. It should also be determined whether the wild boar, like the domestic pig, is a natural host of L. intracellularis.
BMC Veterinary Research 01/2014; 10(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-5 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is a recognized pathogen in domestic pigs; the pathogen has been also isolated from healthy wild boar (Sus scrofa). In the current report, a case of fatal H. parasuis infection in a wild boar piglet from central Spain is described. The affected animal presented severe pneumonic lesions, inflammation in tarsal joints with presence of fibrinous deposits, and epidural hemorrhage in the atlanto-occipital joint. Pure growth of H. parasuis was obtained from lungs and tarsal joints. The current case illustrates the susceptibility of wild boar to this agent. The gross pathology results were similar to that described in domestic pigs, but there were no fibrinous deposits on serosal surfaces.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 03/2013; 25(2):297-300. DOI:10.1177/1040638713479348 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a swine infectious disease causing major economic problems on the intensive pig industry. This virus has been reported worldwide in domestic pigs and there is evidence of PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Nonetheless, the epidemiological role of wild boar and extensively kept domestic pigs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of PRRS in wild boar and Iberian pigs in the dehesa ecosystem of the Castile-La Mancha region of Spain, which boasts one of the most important free-roaming porcine livestock and hunting industries in the country. Using geo-spatial analysis of literature data, we first explored the relationship between domestic pig density and PRRS occurrence in wild boar in Europe. Results revealed that PRRS occurrence in wild boar may be influenced, albeit not significantly, by domestic pig density. Next, we analyzed sera from 294 wild boar and 80 Iberian pigs by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PRRSV antibodies. The sera and 27 wild boar tissue samples were analyzed by two real-time RT-PCR assays, targeting the most conserved genes of the PRRSV genome, ORF1 and ORF7. Seven wild boar (2.4 %) and one Iberian pig (1.3 %) were seropositive, while none of the animals tested positive for PRRSV by RT-PCR. Our results confirm the limited spread of PRRSV in free-roaming Iberian pigs and wild boar living in mutual contact. Further studies would be necessary to address whether this low seroprevalence found in these animals reflects transmission from intensively kept pigs or the independent circulation of specific strains in free-roaming pigs.
European Journal of Wildlife Research 12/2013; 59(6). DOI:10.1007/s10344-013-0739-2 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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