Prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed European wild boar
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate in farmed European wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. A sampling frame was compiled based on a national record of wild boar farmers, and 32 farms were surveyed. Serological screening was carried out on 303 samples from animals slaughtered between 2005 and 2008, and random-effect logistic regression models were developed for pathogens with a 'non-zero' prevalence. The apparent animal prevalence for PPV, PCV2, and L. intracellularis was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-52%), 51.1% (95% CI 45-57%) and 59.2% (95% CI 54-65%), respectively. Apparent farm seroprevalence rates for PPV, PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis were 56.3% (95% CI, 39-73%), 21.9% (95% CI, 8-36%) and 78.1% (95% CI, 64-92%), respectively. No antibodies were detected against SIV, ADV, CSFV, SVDV, TGEV, PRSSV, Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., or M. hyopneumoniae. Increasing herd size, proximity to dense populations of domestic swine and later sampling times within the survey period were found to be risk factors. Overall, the seroprevalence of these pathogens in farmed wild boar was similar to that in the farmed domestic pig population in Finland. However, it is possible that the rearing of wild boars in fenced estates may predispose them to particular infections, as reflected in higher antibody titres.
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ABSTRACT: Serum samples from 1,011 wild boars hunted in 2012 were collected for serological surveillance for four subtypes (pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 and classical H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) of swine influenza virus (SIV). Samples from 12 of the boars were identified as positive for SIV (pandemic A (H1N1) 2009, n=9; classical H1N1, n=2; and H1N2, n=1) by a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI test) and a nucleoprotein (NP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NP-ELISA). Although the overall seroprevalence of SIV in the Korean wild boar population was somewhat low compared with that in China and the USA, the apparent prevalence of pandemic H1N1 was notable. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the wild boar population is needed as it may be a major reservoir for pandemic H1N1, facilitating its spread to humans and domestic pigs.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 10/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1292/jvms.14-0290 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world. We developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of PPV. Primers targeting the VP gene were highly specific, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related viruses, such as porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The performance of unlabeled real time PCR was compared to TaqMan real time PCR, and the detection limits of the two methods were nearly equal. Moreover, there was good correlation between Cp and diluted genomic DNA when tested with the two methods. The assay has the accuracy of 100% in reference to labeled real time PCR, when it was tested on 45 clinical samples. The present study demonstrated that the established assay integrating real-time PCR and HRM is relatively cost-effective and more stable, which provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, specific and sensitive detection of PPV.BMC Veterinary Research 12/2015; 11(1):364. DOI:10.1186/s12917-015-0364-2 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 07/2014; DOI:10.1111/tbed.12247 · 2.10 Impact Factor