Prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed European wild boar.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate in farmed European wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. A sampling frame was compiled based on a national record of wild boar farmers, and 32 farms were surveyed. Serological screening was carried out on 303 samples from animals slaughtered between 2005 and 2008, and random-effect logistic regression models were developed for pathogens with a 'non-zero' prevalence. The apparent animal prevalence for PPV, PCV2, and L. intracellularis was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-52%), 51.1% (95% CI 45-57%) and 59.2% (95% CI 54-65%), respectively. Apparent farm seroprevalence rates for PPV, PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis were 56.3% (95% CI, 39-73%), 21.9% (95% CI, 8-36%) and 78.1% (95% CI, 64-92%), respectively. No antibodies were detected against SIV, ADV, CSFV, SVDV, TGEV, PRSSV, Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., or M. hyopneumoniae. Increasing herd size, proximity to dense populations of domestic swine and later sampling times within the survey period were found to be risk factors. Overall, the seroprevalence of these pathogens in farmed wild boar was similar to that in the farmed domestic pig population in Finland. However, it is possible that the rearing of wild boars in fenced estates may predispose them to particular infections, as reflected in higher antibody titres.
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ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glä sser' s disease, an inflammatory condition featured by serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent exudates at single or multiple serosal sur-faces (porcine polyserositis and arthritis). 1 Polyarthritis is usually more severe in the atlanto-occipital and large limb joints. 19 Haemophilus parasuis can also be involved in swine pneumonia, acting as a primary pathogen, secondary invader, or predisposing agent. 9,12,21 Haemophilus parasuis is considered an early coloniz er of the respiratory tract of domestic pigs, being one of the most significant disease-causing bacteria that affect swine. 14 The pathogenic potential and the development of the disease vary according to the different strains and serovars, 2 individual host resistance, 4 age and colostral protection, 5 and herd health status and origin. 13 The pathological features of H. parasuis infection have been widely described in domestic pigs, 16 but there is little knowledge about the infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Antibodies to H. parasuis have been detected in wild boar in Slovenia, 22 but similar serosurveys carried out in southern Spain were negative. 23 The microorganism has been detected by molecular methods in Germany 17 and isolated from hunted wild boar in Spain. 15 The pathogenic potential of H. parasuis isolated from wild boar has been demonstrated by experimental infection in domestic pigs. 2 However, it appears that no disease has been reported to be caused by this agent in wild boar, so the impact of the agent on these ani-mals is unknown. In the current report, a case of fatal H. parasuis infection in a wild boar piglet from central Spain is described. The affected animal came from a game estate located in the " M ontes de Toledo" area in the province of Toledo (cen-tral Spain), a region with a continental thermo-M editerranean climate (hot and dry summers and mild and moderately wet winters). The estate is completely fenced, enclosing approxi-mately 1,000 hectares. The dominant vegetation consists of holly oaks (Quercus ilex) accompanied by a large amount of shrub, mainly heather (Erica sp.) and rock rose (Cistus sp.) in sunny areas, and arbutus (or, strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo) in shady areas. Approximately 20% of the property is occupied by crops of oat (Avena sativa) and vetch (Vicia sp.), providing food for the estimated 300 wild boar that live in the estate. The wild boar share the habitat with a small population of W estern roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), with no other artiodactyls being present on the estate. The subject of the current study was a young male wild boar approximately 5 months old, caught by the manager of the farm during a routine patrol. The animal was walking with difficulty behind his mother, showing a noticeable respiratory distress and weakness. In other observation areas, more animals were observed with similar symptoms, but it was impossible to capture these individuals due to the diffi-cult terrain. After capture, the animal died naturally, and the body was chilled. Necropsy was carried out less than 24 hr after capture, to allow a complete pathological and microbio-logical study. The animal showed poor body condition and generaliz ed lymphadenopathy. The conjunctiva and other mucosal sur-faces were pale, and a great amount of mucus was seen around the snout. There was an evident asymmetry in the hind paws, with unilateral increase of the siz e of the tarsal joint (Fig. 1). The bursa presented an evident inflammation, 479348V DIXXX10.1177/1040638713479348Gerve no et al.Haemophilus parasuis wild boar fatal infection From the Red de grupos de investigación Recursos Fauní sticos,Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 04/2013; 25(2):297-300. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As one of the most significant swine diseases, in recent years, swine influenza (SI) has had an immense impact on public health and has raised extensive public concerns in China. Swine are predisposed to both avian and human influenza virus infections, between that and/or swine influenza viruses, genetic reassortment could occur. This analysis aims at introducing the history of swine influenza virus, the serological epidemiology of swine influenza virus infection, the clinical details of swine influenza, the development of vaccines against swine influenza and controlling the situation of swine influenza in China. Considering the elaborate nature of swine influenza, a more methodical surveillance should be further implemented.Indian Journal of Microbiology 03/2014; · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The importance of the wild boar as a reservoir of Lawsonia intracellularis was assessed by investigating the seroprevalence of this pathogen among wild boars in the Republic of Korea. The extent of exposure to L. intracellularis among wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) was monitored by a country-wide serological survey using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. In this study, antibodies to L. intracellularis were observed in 165 of 716 clinically healthy wild boars tested. The overall apparent prevalence calculated directly from the sample and the true prevalence calculated based on the accuracy of the test method were 23.0% (95% confidence interval: 20.0-26.3%) and 25.6% (95% confidence interval: 23.9-27.2%), respectively. Serologically positive animals were found in all the tested provinces. Our results confirm that L. intracellularis is present in the wild boar population worldwide, even in Far East Asia. Despite the high seroprevalence shown in wild boars, further studies are warranted to evaluate their potential as a reservoir species because seroprevalence does not prove ongoing infection nor shedding of the bacteria in amounts sufficient to infect other animals. It should also be determined whether the wild boar, like the domestic pig, is a natural host of L. intracellularis.BMC Veterinary Research 01/2014; 10(1):5. · 1.86 Impact Factor