Molecular pathology

Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Unit 085, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Molecular oncology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2012; 6(2):177-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.molonc.2012.02.007
Source: PubMed


Molecular pathology as applied to neoplasia is a rapidly expanding component of the discipline of pathology that uses molecular biology tools in addition to conventional morphologic, immunohistochemical and chemical analyses of abnormalities in tissues and cells to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of tumors, establish their diagnosis, and contribute to prognostication and therapeutic decisions for cancer patient care. Biomarkers are a fundamental component of personalized cancer care, and the discipline of molecular pathology therefore contributes throughout the continuum from biomarker research to use in standard-of-care personalized cancer therapy. This brief review addresses some of the specific roles of molecular pathology in that continuum.

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Many patients with osteosarcoma (OS) will succumb to distant metastasis, often involving the lungs. Effective therapies for treating lung metastases depend on the availability of a clinically relevant pre-clinical model. Mice were surgically implanted with OS tumor fragments. The time course of primary tumor growth and subsequent spread to the lung were determined. Following development of a lytic and proliferative primary bone lesion, tumor metastasized to the lung in the majority of mice. There was no evidence of tumor at three weeks, but 10 out of 11 mice ultimately developed secondary OS in the lung within 12 weeks. Implantation of OS tumor fragments leads to the development of primary bone tumors and secondary lung metastases, recapitulating the clinical behavior of OS. This model offers an advantage over cell suspension injection models by precluding initial seeding of the lung with tumor cells.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 08/2013; 27(5):599-603. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are potential biomarkers for cancer detection in breath, but it is unclear if they reflect specific mutations. To test this, we have compared human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) cell lines carrying the KRASV12 mutation, knockdown of TP53 or both with parental HBEC cells. Methods: VOC from headspace above cultured cells were collected by passive sampling and analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) or sensor array with discriminant factor analysis (DFA). Results: In TD-GC–MS analysis, individual compounds had limited ability to discriminate between cell lines, but by applying DFA analysis combinations of 20 VOCs successfully discriminated between all cell types (accuracies 80–100%, with leave-one-out cross validation). Sensor array detection DFA demonstrated the ability to discriminate samples based on their cell type for all comparisons with accuracies varying between 77% and 93%. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that minimal genetic changes in bronchial airway cells lead to detectable differences in levels of specific VOCs identified by TD-GC–MS or of patterns of VOCs identified by sensor array output. From the clinical aspect, these results suggest the possibility of breath analysis for detection of minimal genetic changes for earlier diagnosis or for genetic typing of lung cancers.
    British Journal of Cancer 07/2014; 111(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.411 · 4.84 Impact Factor


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