Local allergic rhinitis: Concept, pathophysiology, and management

Allergy Service, Carlos Haya Hospital, Málaga, Spain.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 04/2012; 129(6):1460-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a localized nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterized by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a T(H)2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response with release of inflammatory mediators (tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein). Although the prevalence remains to be established, a number of patients previously given a diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis or idiopathic rhinitis are now being classified as having LAR. Culprit allergens responsible include house dust mite, grass and olive pollens, and many others. For the diagnosis of LAR, neither skin prick testing nor determination of the presence of serum sIgE antibodies is useful, and a nasal allergen provocation test is needed to identify the culprit allergen or allergens. In a certain proportion of cases, local sIgE can be detected, and conjunctivitis, asthma, or both can be associated. Whether patients with LAR will have systemic atopy in the future is a matter of debate. Further studies are needed for examine the prevalence of this phenomenon in different areas, to improve the diagnostic methods to better identify these patients, and to develop therapeutic approaches, including the use of immunotherapy.

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Available from: Joaquim Mullol, Jul 20, 2014
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    • "AR is deeply related to other atopic diseases such as asthma. House dust mite (HDM), which includes two main species, Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, plays an important role in the onset and aggravation of allergic diseases, including AR [3]–[5]. Total IgE in the serum of AR subjects is high relative to normal subjects and HDM-specific IgE (HDM IgE) also appears in AR patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: House dust mite (HDM) is a primary allergen in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is associated with allergic diseases and innate immunity to infection. The present study examined how HDM affects constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in normal and AR subjects. Total IgE increased in AR subjects when compared to normal subjects, and patients with AR were HDM-specific IgE positive (+), which is specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. In normal and AR subjects, neutrophil apoptosis was inhibited by extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP), but not by extract of Dermatophagoides farina (DF). Aprotinin (serine protease inhibitor) and E64 (cysteine protease inhibitor) have no effect on neutrophil apoptosis due to DP. The anti-apoptotic effect of DP was blocked by TLR4i, an inhibitor of TLR4, rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKCδ, PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and BAY-11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-κB. DP induced PKCδ, ERK, and NF-κB activation in a time-dependent manner. DP inhibited the cleavage of procaspase 3 and procaspase 9. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2 increased in the supernatant collected from the normal and AR neutrophils after DP treatment and the supernatant inhibited the apoptosis of normal and AR neutrophils. In summary, DP has anti-apoptotic effects on neutrophils of normal and AR subjects through the TLR4/PKCδ/ERK/NF-κB pathway, and this finding may contribute to solution of the pathogenic mechanism of allergic diseases triggered by DP.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105814. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105814 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Taken together, the novel murine model established here develops symptoms closely resembling human LAR patients [7]. Next, to investigate whether the LAR-like status of the mice is stable for a while, mice nasally sensitized with ragweed or PBS for 7 consecutive days were left untreated for next 7 days, then the mice were nasally challenged with ragweed for 3 days (day 14 to 16) (Figure S3A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the concept of local allergic rhinitis (LAR) was established, namely rhinitis symptoms with local IgE production and negative serum antigen-specific IgE. However, the natural course of LAR development and the disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study investigated the pathophysiology of mice with allergic rhinitis that initially sensitized with ragweed pollen through the nasal route. Mice were nasally administrated ragweed pollen over consecutive days without prior systemic immunization of the allergen. Serial nasal sensitization of ragweed pollen induced an allergen-specific increase in sneezing, eosinophilic infiltration, and the production of local IgE by day 7, but serum antigen-specific IgE was not detected. Th2 cells accumulated in nose and cervical lymph nodes as early as day 3. These symptoms are characteristic of human LAR. Continual nasal exposure of ragweed pollen for 3 weeks resulted in the onset of classical AR with systemic atopy and adversely affected lung inflammation when the allergen was instilled into the lung. Fcer1a-/- mice were defective in sneezing but developed normal eosinophilic infiltration. Contrary, Rag2-/- mice were defective in both sneezing and eosinophilic infiltration, suggesting that T cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. These observations demonstrate nasal allergen sensitization to non-atopic individuals can induce LAR. Because local Th2 cell accumulation is the first sign and Th2 cells have a central role in the disease, a T-cell-based approach may aid the diagnosis and treatment of LAR.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103540. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103540 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Prevalence data are estimated to lay between 47% and 62.5% of patients with perennial and seasonal symptoms. Interestingly, this condition is described to precede a “classic” AR [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS) are relevant health conditions affecting significant percentages of the western population. They are frequently coexisting and aggravating diseases. Both are chronic, noninfectious, and inflammatory conditions sharing to a certain extent important pathophysiologic similarities. Beneficial effects of probiotics are long known to mankind. Research is beginning to unravel the true nature of the human microbiome and its interaction with the immune system. The growing prevalence of atopic diseases in the developed world led to the proposition of the "hygiene hypothesis." Dysbiosis is linked to atopic diseases; probiotic supplementation is able to alter the microbiome and certain probiotic strains have immunomodulatory effects in favour of a suppression of Th-2 and stimulation of a Th1 profile. This review focuses on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating clinical parameters in the treatment of chronic rhinitis and CRS. An emerging number of publications demonstrate beneficial effects using probiotics in clinical double-blind placebo-controlled (dbpc) trials in allergic rhinitis (AR). Using probiotics as complementary treatment options in AR seems to be a promising concept although the evidence is of a preliminary nature to date and more convincing trials are needed. There are no current data to support the use of probiotics in non-AR or CRS.
    Journal of Allergy 04/2014; 2014(23):983635. DOI:10.1155/2014/983635
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