Current Dosing Paradigm for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone After Surgical Resection of Brain Metastases Needs to Be Optimized for Improved Local Control
ABSTRACT To describe the use of radiosurgery (RS) alone to the resection cavity after resection of brain metastases as an alternative to adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT).
Sixty-two patients with 64 cavities were treated with linear accelerator-based RS alone to the resection cavity after surgical removal of brain metastases between March 2007 and August 2010. Fifty-two patients (81%) had a gross total resection. Median cavity volume was 8.5 cm(3). Forty-four patients (71%) had a single metastasis. Median marginal and maximum doses were 18 Gy and 20.4 Gy, respectively. Sixty-one cavities (95%) had gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of ≥1 mm.
Six-month and 1-year actuarial local recurrence rates were 14% and 22%, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 9.7 months. Six-month and 1-year actuarial distant brain recurrence, total intracranial recurrence, and freedom from WBRT rates were 31% and 51%, 41% and 63%, and 91% and 74%, respectively. The symptomatic cavity radiation necrosis rate was 8%, with 2 patients (3%) undergoing surgery. Of the 11 local failures, 8 were in-field, 1 was marginal, and 2 were both (defined as in-field if ≥90% of recurrence within the prescription isodose and marginal if ≥90% outside of the prescription isodose).
The high rate of in-field cavity failure suggests that geographic misses with highly conformal RS are not a major contributor to local recurrence. The current dosing regimen derived from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 90-05 should be optimized in this patient population before any direct comparison with WBRT.
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ABSTRACT: Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy after resection of brain metastasis is an alternative to whole brain radiotherapy. A high dose per fraction is associated with a risk of radiation necrosis. We present four cases of confirmed histological radiation necrosis. Differentiating recurrent tumour from radiation necrosis in this scenario is challenging. An enhancing area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a "cut bell pepper" appearance may suggest radiation necrosis. Advanced imaging modalities such as perfusion MR imaging and positron emission tomography can be useful. Dosimetric predictors of the occurrence of radiation necrosis after stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy are poorly understood and require prospective studies on larger cohorts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases potentially offers similar local control rates and fewer long-term neurocognitive sequelae compared to whole brain radiation therapy, although patients remain at risk for distant brain failure (DBF). OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical outcomes of adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery for large brain metastases and identify predictors of intracranial failure and their implications on optimal patient selection criteria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review on 100 large (>3 cm) brain metastases in 99 patients managed by resection followed by postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery to a median dose of 22 Gy (range, 10-28) in 1 to 5 fractions (median, 3). Primary histology was nonsmall cell lung in 40%, breast cancer in 18%, and melanoma in 17%. Forty (40%) patients had uncontrolled systemic disease. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 12.2 months (range, 0.6-87.4), the 1-year Kaplan-Meier local control was 72%, DBF 64%, and overall survival 55%. Nine patients (9%) developed evidence of radiation injury, and 6 (6%) developed leptomeningeal disease. Uncontrolled systemic disease (P = .03), melanoma histology (P = .04), and increasing number of brain metastases (P < .001) were significant predictors of DBF on Cox multivariate analysis. Patients with,4 metastases, controlled systemic disease, and nonmelanoma primary (n = 47) had a 1-year DBF of 48.6% vs 80.1% for all others (P = .01). CONCLUSION: Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery to the resection cavity safely and effectively augments local control of large brain metastases. Patients with <4 metastases and controlled systemic disease have significantly lower rates of DBF and are ideal treatment candidates.Neurosurgery 12/2014; 76(2). DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000584 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of postoperative whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone in patients with resected brain metastases (BM). We reviewed records of patients who underwent surgical resection of BM followed by WBRT or SRS alone between 2003 and 2013. Local control (LC) of the treated resected cavity, distant brain control (DBC), leptomeningeal disease (LMD), overall survival (OS), and radiographic leukoencephalopathy rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. One-hundred thirty-two patients underwent surgical resection for 141 intracranial metastases: 36 (27 %) patients received adjuvant WBRT and 96 (73 %) received SRS alone to the resection cavity. One-year OS (56 vs. 55 %, p = 0.64) and LC (83 vs. 74 %, p = 0.31) were similar between patients receiving WBRT and SRS. After controlling for number of BM, WBRT was associated with higher 1-year DBC compared with SRS (70 vs. 48 %, p = 0.03); single metastasis and WBRT were the only significant predictors for reduced distant brain recurrence in multi-variate analysis. Freedom from LMD was higher with WBRT at 18 months (87 vs. 69 %, p = 0.045), while incidence of radiographic leukoencephalopathy was higher with WBRT at 12 months (47 vs. 7 %, p = 0.001). One-year freedom from WBRT in the SRS alone group was 86 %. Compared with WBRT for patients with resected BM, SRS alone demonstrated similar LC, higher rates of LMD and inferior DBC, after controlling for the number of BM. However, OS was similar between groups. The results of ongoing clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.Journal of Neuro-Oncology 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1601-4 · 2.79 Impact Factor