Impact of collimation on radiation exposure during interventional electrophysiology.
ABSTRACT AIMS: Fluoroscopy remains a cornerstone imaging technique in contemporary electrophysiology practice. We evaluated the impact of collimation to the 'minimal required field size' on clinically significant parameters of radiation exposure.METHODS AND RESULTS: Radiation dose measured by dose area product (DAP) and radiation dose rate measured by DAP per minute of fluoroscopy were determined for all 571 electrophysiology procedures performed in a single electrophysiology laboratory from January 2010 to December 2010. Data from 205 procedures performed by one interventional electrophysiologist, who instituted a practice of routinely collimating to the minimum required visual fluoroscopy field on a case-by-case basis, were compared with data from 366 procedures performed by the three other experienced interventional electrophysiologists using the laboratory who continued their existing practice of ad hoc collimation. Significant reductions in radiation exposure were seen with the practice of routine maximal collimation. The largest reductions were seen during 'simple' ablation procedures.CONCLUSION: A practice of routinely collimating to the minimum required visual fluoroscopy field results in significant reductions in radiation exposure when compared with a usual approach to collimation. This may have important implications for risk of malignancy in patients and operators.
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ABSTRACT: Imaging for urolithiasis has evolved over the past 30 years. Currently, non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) remains the first line imaging modality for the evaluation of patients with suspected urolithiasis. NCCT is a dominant source of ionizing radiation for patients and one of its major limitation. However, new low dose NCCT protocols may help to reduce the risk. Fluoroscopy use during operating room (OR) surgical procedures can be a substantial source of radiation for patients, OR staff and surgeons. It is important to consider the amount of radiation patients are exposed to from fluoroscopy during operative interventions for stones. Radiation reduction can be accomplished by appropriate selection of imaging studies and multiple techniques, which minimize the use of fluoroscopy whenever possible. The purpose of this manuscript is to review common imaging modalities used for diagnosing and management of renal and ureteral stones associated with radiation exposure. We also review alternatives and techniques to reduce radiation exposure.Indian Journal of Urology 01/2014; 30(1):55-9.
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ABSTRACT: C-arm fluoroscope has been widely used to promote more effective pain management; however, unwanted radiation exposure for operators is inevitable. We prospectively investigated the differences in radiation exposure related to collimation in Medial Branch Block (MBB). This study was a randomized controlled trial of 62 MBBs at L3, 4 and 5. After the patient was laid in the prone position on the operating table, MBB was conducted and only AP projections of the fluoroscope were used. Based on a concealed random number table, MBB was performed with (collimation group) and without (control group) collimation. The data on the patient's age, height, gender, laterality (right/left), radiation absorbed dose (RAD), exposure time, distance from the center of the field to the operator, and effective dose (ED) at the side of the table and at the operator's chest were collected. The brightness of the fluoroscopic image was evaluated with histogram in Photoshop. There were no significant differences in age, height, weight, male to female ratio, laterality, time, distance and brightness of fluoroscopic image. The area of the fluoroscopic image with collimation was 67% of the conventional image. The RAD (29.9 ± 13.0, P = 0.001) and the ED at the left chest of the operators (0.53 ± 0.71, P = 0.042) and beside the table (5.69 ± 4.6, P = 0.025) in collimation group were lower than that of the control group (44.6 ± 19.0, 0.97 ± 0.92, and 9.53 ± 8.16), resepectively. Collimation reduced radiation exposure and maintained the image quality. Therefore, the proper use of collimation will be beneficial to both patients and operators.The Korean journal of pain 04/2013; 26(2):148-53.