We evaluated the relationship between maternal H1N1 vaccination and fetal and neonatal outcomes among singleton births during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic.
We used a population-based perinatal database in Ontario, Canada, to examine preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, 5-minute Apgar score below 7, and fetal death via multivariable regression. We compared outcomes between women who did and did not receive an H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy.
Of the 55,570 mothers with a singleton birth, 23,340 (42.0%) received an H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy. Vaccinated mothers were less likely to have an SGA infant based on the 10th (adjusted risk ratio [RR]=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.85, 0.96) and 3rd (adjusted RR=0.81; 95% CI=0.72, 0.92) growth percentiles; PTB at less than 32 weeks' gestation (adjusted RR=0.73; 95% CI=0.58, 0.91) and fetal death (adjusted RR=0.66; 95% CI=0.47, 0.91) were also less likely among these women.
Our results suggest that second- or third-trimester H1N1 vaccination was associated with improved fetal and neonatal outcomes during the recent pandemic. Our findings need to be confirmed in future studies with designs that can better overcome concerns regarding biased estimates of vaccine efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza poses unique risks to pregnant women, who are particularly susceptible to morbidity and mortality. Historically, pregnant women have been overrepresented among patients with severe illness and complications from influenza, and have been more likely to require hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. An increased risk of adverse outcomes is also present for fetuses/neonates born to women affected by influenza during pregnancy. These risks to mothers and babies have been observed during both nonpandemic and pandemic influenza seasons. During the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, pregnant women were more likely to be hospitalized or admitted to intensive care units, and were at higher risk of death compared to nonpregnant adults. Vaccination remains the most effective intervention to prevent severe illness, and antiviral medications are an important adjunct to ameliorate disease when it occurs. Unfortunately, despite national guidelines recommending universal vaccination for women who are pregnant during influenza season, actual vaccination rates do not achieve desired targets among pregnant women. Pregnant women are also sometimes reluctant to use antiviral medications during pregnancy. Some of the barriers to use of vaccines and medications during pregnancy are a lack of knowledge of recommendations and of safety data. By improving knowledge and understanding of influenza and vaccination recommendations, vaccine acceptance rates among pregnant women can be improved. Currently, the appropriate use of vaccination and antiviral medications is the best line of defense against influenza and its sequelae among pregnant women, and strategies to increase acceptance are crucial. This article will review the importance of influenza in pregnancy, and discuss vaccination and antiviral medications for pregnant women.
International Journal of Women's Health 07/2014; 6(1):681-689. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S47235
"Protection from influenza during pregnancy may provide unique health benefits during the perinatal period. Among infants born during influenza season, maternal vaccination has been associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational age at birth, and fetal death  . Further, maternal influenza infection has been linked to increased risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring   , a risk that vaccination could mitigate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care.
"To our knowledge this is one of the first large population based studies of the association between influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and foetal death , . As the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine most commonly used in the UK was the AS03 adjuvanted vaccine, Pandemrix®, this is also one of the first studies to investigate the association between an adjuvanted vaccine and foetal loss. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of foetal loss associated with pandemic influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. UK General Practice Research Database Pregnancies ending in delivery or spontaneous foetal death after 21 October 2009 and starting before 01 January 2010.
Hazard ratios of foetal death for vaccinated compared to unvaccinated pregnancies were estimated for gestational weeks 9 to 12, 13 to 24 and 25 to 43 using discrete-time survival analysis. Separate models were specified to evaluate whether the potential effect of vaccination on foetal loss might be transient (for ∼4 weeks post vaccination only) or more permanent (for the duration of the pregnancy). 39,863 pregnancies meeting our inclusion criteria contributed a total of 969,322 gestational weeks during the study period. 9,445 of the women were vaccinated before or during pregnancy. When the potential effect of vaccination was assumed to be transient, the hazard of foetal death during gestational weeks 9 through 12 (HR(unadj) 0.56; CI(95) 0.43 to 0.73) and 13 through 24 (HR(unadj) 0.45; CI(95) 0.28 to 0.73) was lower in the 4 weeks after vaccination than in other weeks. Where the more permanent exposure definition was specified, vaccinated pregnancies also had a lower hazard of foetal loss than unvaccinated pregnancies in gestational weeks 9 through 12 (HR(unadj) 0.74; CI(95) 0.62 to 0.88) and 13 through 24 (HR(unadj) 0.59; CI(95) 0.45 to 0.77). There was no difference in the hazard of foetal loss during weeks 25 to 43 in either model. Sensitivity analyses suggest the strong protective associations observed may be due in part to unmeasured confounding.
Influenza vaccination during pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of foetal death. This study therefore supports the continued recommendation of influenza vaccination of pregnant women.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51734. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051734 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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