Time-Stamp Approach to Prevention of Different Deadlock Types in Store-And-Forward Networks

Instytut Automatyki, Technical Univ. of Poznań, Poznań, Poland
IEEE Transactions on Communications (Impact Factor: 1.99). 06/1987; 35(5):564 - 566. DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1987.1096798
Source: IEEE Xplore


This correspondence is concerned with the prevention of four types of deadlock in store-and-forward networks, i.e., progeny, copy-release, reassembly, and resequence deadlocks. The approach presented makes use of time stamping of all messages and generalizes the method of store-and-forward deadlock prevention.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the problem of store-and-forward deadlock prevention in store-and-forward networks. The presented solution uses time stamping of all messages in the network, and a nonpreemptable message exchange mechanism. By combining these ideas, a new distributed flow control procedure is derived which guarantees that all messages are delivered to their own destinations, thus avoiding both deadlock and livelock without any message loss. It is shown that some properties of this procedure depend on the policy of the allocation of exchange buffers to nodes. On the one hand, an optimal allocation strategy is presented which results in a maximally optimal deadlock prevention procedure. The procedure is network sizeand topology-independent and allows unrestricted packet routing. On the other hand, the allocation of one exchange buffer per node is discussed, which, even if not optimal, makes the derived deadlock prevention procedure completely independent of network reconfigurations. The last feature is extremely important from the practical point of view and, therefore, such a solution is strongly recommended. When compared to store-and-forward deadlock prevention procedures described so far, which lack some or all of these desirable properties, the procedure presented here behaves favorably. However, it imposes other drawbacks, i.e., the possibility of extra hops as a result of exchange operations. It is argued that this drawback appears rarely in practice, and some strategies which aim at a reduction of it are proposed.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 06/1987; 35(5-35):490 - 495. DOI:10.1109/TCOM.1987.1096799 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Packet-switching networks employ store-and-forward mechanism for transmission of equal-size packets through the network. This mechanism potentially offers dynamic resource sharing, high reliability, flexibility in setting up user connections, etc. It involves, however, a danger of store-and-forward deadlock occurring when a circular chain of packets exists in which each packet occupies a buffer that is requested by the next packet in the chain. Therefore solution of this problem is necessary to achieve potential profits of packet switching. This paper is concerned with distributed strategies for store-and-forward deadlock prevention in packet-switching networks of arbitrary topology. These strategies prevent deadlocks at some cost involved in buffer utilization, flexibility and efficiency of packet routing, independence of network topology and its reconfigurations. In this context many particular optimization problems can be formulated. This paper deals with some of them, including such aspects as: optimization of buffer pool partitioning and buffer allocation for hop-so-far strategies, minimization of routing constraints imposed by strategies based on the barrier graph concept, and maximization of liberty of buffer allocation for networks with fixed as well as adaptive routing.
    European Journal of Operational Research 02/1992; 57(1):1-12. DOI:10.1016/0377-2217(92)90300-X · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The store-and-forward deadlock problem in packet switching networks is considered. Most of the previous work addressed this issue using reserved buffers, and most algorithms, with the exception of that given by J. Blazewicz et al. (1987) (the BBG algorithm), use more reserved buffers than necessary, implying that each node does not have the maximum flexibility in message routing. It is shown that the BBG deadlock prevention algorithm can generate an unbounded number of backtracked messages. A deadlock detection and resolution algorithm that allows a minimum number of buffers to be reserved and minimizes the number of backtracked messages at the end of each detection and resolution is presented. It is shown that in the worst case, only O (| E |) backtracked messages can be generated as a result of this algorithm, and that each backtracked message is backtracked only one hop
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