Newly-developed Devices for The Two Types of Underwater Vehicles
ABSTRACT JAMSTEC has developed the two types of underwater vehicle since 2005: an ROV to the oceans' deepest depth called ASSS11k (advanced sediment sampling system to 11,000 meter) and a hybrid underwater vehicle for use in shallow-water to mid-depth zones named PICASSO (Plankton Investigatory Collaborating Autonomous Survey System Operon). The most important purpose of the ASSS11k is to get a lot of mud sample of challenger deep in the Mariana Trench, because a number of bacteria have been found there. Scientist wants to continuously explore the deepest parts of the oceans with a vehicle equipped with sediment samplers. ASSS11k consists of a sampling station and a sediment probe. The station contains two types of bottom samplers. One launches the probe to make a preliminary survey, launching the sampler to obtain a sample. We carried out the first sea trial using support vessel of "KAIREI" in January 2007. We tested every functions of the system and achieved sediment sampling at Sagami bay. PICASSO (2 times 0.8 times 0.8 m, 200 kg) is designed for biological and oceanographic observations in depths of up to 1,000 m. This small, light vehicle can be handled and operated by a team of only a few people. The easy-to-use vehicle does not need a dedicated support ship. The vehicle can be used either as untethered remotely operated vehicle (UROV) or autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). In order to develop these vehicles, we used some new technologies and then developed new original devices: a small electrical-optical hybrid communication system, an HDTV optical communication system with Ethernet interface, synthetic designed pressure vessel-chassis-inner circuit boards, buoyancy material for deepest depth, a thin cable with high-tensile strength, a core sampler launcher, crawlers, compact winch motor drivers, a USBL system, a ballast controller, a friendly-user-interface program for operator, a high capacity lithium ion battery, a down sizing optical fiber spooler, and a prototy-
pe of underwater electromagnetic communication system.
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ABSTRACT: The development of quantitative zooplankton collecting systems began with Hensen (1887 Berichte der Kommssion wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere in Kiel5, 1–107; 1895 Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humbolt-Stiftung. Kiel and Leipzig: Lipsius and Tischer). Non-opening closing nets, opening closing nets (mostly messenger based), high-speed samplers, and planktobenthos net systems all had their start in his era — the late 1800s and early 1900s. This was also an era in which many of the fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the plankton in the worlds oceans were first posed. Fewer new systems were introduced between 1912 and 1950 apparently due in part to the two World Wars. The continuous plankton recorder stands out as a truly innovative device developed during this period (Hardy 1926b Nature, London118, 630). Resurgence in development of mechanically-based instruments occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. A new lineage of high-speed samplers, the Gulf series, began in the 1950s and a number of variants were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Net systems specifically designed to collect neuston first appeared in the late 1950s. During the 1960s, many focused field and experimental tank experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamics of nets, and much of our knowledge concerning net design and construction criteria was developed. The advent of reliable electrical conducting cables and electrically-based control systems during this same period gave rise first to a variety of cod-end samplers and then to the precursors of the acoustically and electronically-controlled multi-net systems and environmental sensors, which appeared in the 1970s. The decade of the 1970s saw a succession of multi-net systems based both on the Bé multiple plankton sampler and on the Tucker trawl. The advent of the micro-computer stimulated and enabled the development of sophisticated control and data logging electronics for these systems in the 1980s. In the 1990s, acoustic and optical technologies gave rise to sensor systems that either complement multiple net systems or are deployed without nets. Multi-sensor systems with high data telemetry rates through electro-optical cable are now being deployed in towed bodies and on remotely operated vehicles. In the offing are new molecular technologies to identify species in situ, and realtime data analysis, image processing, and 3D/4D display. In the near future, it is likely that the use of multi-sensor systems deployed on autonomous vehicles will yield world wide coverage of the distribution and abundance of zooplankton.Progress in Oceanography - PROG OCEANOGR. 01/2003; 56(1):7-136.
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ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the mechanics of ciliary movement of ctenophores in relation to locomotion and feeding, with field and laboratory observations documented with 35 mm photographs and video sequences. Movement through the water is strongly modified by subtleties of body morphology. Whereas the entire ctenophore moves in a flow regime where the Reynolds numbers range from 100 to 6000, the cilia on the surface of the ctenophores move in a flow regime where the Reynolds numbers range only from 10 to 300. The water flow patterns seen by use of fluorescein dye do not match any current model of ciliary flow and assumptions for a new model are postulated. Ctenophores exhibit a wide variety of morphological adaptations that reduce drag, and a variety of behaviours that exploit fine-scale water movements for prey capture.Hydrobiologia 05/1991; 216-217(1):319-325. · 1.99 Impact Factor