Conference Paper

# A Near Optimal Localized Heuristic for Voice Multicasting over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Yahoo! Software Dev. India Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore

DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2007.276 Conference: Communications, 2007. ICC '07. IEEE International Conference on Source: IEEE Xplore

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**ABSTRACT:**This paper presents a wireless multicast tree construction algorithm, SWIM (Source-initiated WIreless Multicast). SWIM constructs a tree on which each multicast destination has the minimum possible depth (number of hops from the nearest source). It is proved that SWIM is fully distributed, with a worst case complexity upper-bounded by O(N3), and an empirically found average complexity of only O(N2). SWIM forms one shared tree from source(s) to the multicast destinations; yet, as a by-product, it creates a multicast mesh structure by maintaining alternative branches at every tree node, thus providing robustness to link failures. This makes it suitable for both ad hoc networks and access networks with multiple gateways. In terms of minimizing the number of forwarding nodes, SWIM is optimal for unicast and competitive with the state of the art for multicast, outperforming the best known distributed approaches from the literature except for the multicast ad hoc on demand distance vector (MAODV) algorithm. However, simulations of the MAODV algorithm alongside SWIM on a large set of network instances show that the depth minimality of SWIM leads to lower average delay per multicast destination. It is also shown that the delay performance of SWIM is virtually unaffected by the presence of low mobility in the network.The Computer Journal 05/2011; 54:988-1003. · 0.89 Impact Factor -
##### Conference Paper: A TDMA protocol design to relay voice communications

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**ABSTRACT:**There are many applications in wireless communications. Many devices are used to connect wireless instead of cables. Wireless markets are growing very fast after smartphones have been introduced. Application area of Bluetooth wireless connections are growing and their applied devices are introduced in markets nowadays. But wireless voice communications are implemented using analog communication technology. Therefore digital voice communications are required to communicate voice as well as data over ad-hoc capability. This paper presents a protocol to communicate digital voice data for small groups. The proposed protocol can relay data or voice to other nodes by multi-hop retransmission using TDMA method. To implement TDMA, it is required to divide a network cycle to 17 small time slot. To add ad-hoc capability, the first slot is assigned a contention slot. This slot is used to find any new nodes to join the network. The maximum sixteen nodes can communicate each other by full duplex mode and the number of listen-only node is not limited. The simulation results show that a straight line ad-hoc connection time for 16 nodes is less than 450msec. The proposed network delivers very reliable voice packets since the packet loss is 4.9% at leaf nodes when nodes move randomly at the speed of 6m/sec.Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM), 2013 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on; 01/2013 -
##### Conference Paper: A low complexity distributed algorithm for computing minimum-depth multicast trees in wireless networks

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**ABSTRACT:**This paper presents a wireless multicast tree construction algorithm, SWIM (Source-initiated WIreless Multicast). SWIM forms one shared tree from source(s) to the multicast destinations; yet, as a side product it creates a multicast mesh structure by maintaining alternative branches at every tree node, thus providing robustness to link failures. This makes it suitable for both ad-hoc networks and access networks with multiple gateways. It is proved that SWIM is fully distributed, with a worst case complexity (for multicast) upper-bounded by O(N<sup>3</sup>), and average complexity of only O(N<sup>2</sup>). SWIM constructs a tree on which each multicast destination has the minimum possible depth (number of hops from the nearest source). In terms of minimizing the number of forwarding nodes (NFN), SWIM is optimal for unicast. Its average NFN in the broadcast and multicast cases is compared with practical algorithms targeting low NFN reported in the literature. In both multicast and unicast, SWIM performs competitively in terms of NFN with the previous solutions, while having smaller maximum depth, and consequently low delay.MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE, 2010 - MILCOM 2010; 12/2010

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