Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution–Induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.03). 04/2012; 120(7):952-7. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1104472
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Findings of a recent epidemiological study suggested that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted cardiac responses to air pollution exposure.
We conducted a randomized, controlled exposure study to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplements in attenuating adverse cardiac effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine and ultrafine particulate matter (CAP).
Twenty-nine healthy middle-aged participants (mean, 58 ± 1 years of age) were supplemented in a randomized, double-blinded manner with 3 g/day of either fish oil or olive oil for 4 weeks before sequential chamber exposure to filtered air and CAP (mean mass concentration 278 ± 19 µg/m3) for 2 hr. Cardiac responses were assessed by comparing time and frequency domain changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and electrocardiographic repolarization changes measured before, immediately after, and 20 hr after exposure. Changes in plasma lipids were also evaluated at these time points.
Fish oil supplementation appeared to attenuate CAP-induced reductions in high-frequency/low-frequency ratio, as well as elevations in normalized low-frequency HRV and prolongation of the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc). Very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations increased significantly immediately after exposure to CAP in participants supplemented with olive oil, but not in those supplemented with fish oil.
Exposure of healthy middle-aged adults to CAP for 2 hr induced acute cardiac and lipid changes after supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil. Our findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplements offer protection against the adverse cardiac and lipid effects associated with air pollution exposure.

Download full-text


Available from: David Diaz-Sanchez, Jul 05, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.
    Environmental Health 05/2013; 12(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-12-40 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Our group recently found higher levels of serum long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in patients with chronic periodontitis compared to controls. However, the effect of periodontal treatment on LC-PUFA serum levels has not been investigated. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of periodontal treatment on LC-PUFA serum levels. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of dietary ω-3 supplementation on clinical outcome.Material and Methods The test group was composed of 10 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (mean age 44 ± 6.4 years) treated with scaling and root planing associated with 4 mo of ω-3 supplementation eicosapetaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 3 g/d. The placebo group was composed of 11 patients (47.9 ± 10.5 years) that received scaling and root planing plus placebo. The periodontal examination included probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and visible plaque index. Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were detected using gas chromatograph.ResultsIn the placebo group, all LC-PUFAs levels reduced significantly (DHA, DPA and AA, p = 0.004; EPA, p = 0.008). In the test group, only DPA and AA showed a significant reduction (p = 0.005). Moreover, a significant decrease in the ratios AA/EPA and AA/DHA (p = 0.005) was observed in the test group.Conclusion Non-surgical periodontal treatment reduced significantly the serum levels of all analyzed LC-PUFAs except those presented in the supplementation. The ω-3 dietary supplementation had no effect on clinical outcome of treatment.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 05/2013; 49(2). DOI:10.1111/jre.12104 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) by an estimated 25% to 30% via oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms that may be ameliorated by dietary components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesized modifying role of nutrients with known antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties on the relationship between SHS exposure and CHD mortality. Detailed SHS exposure and dietary information was collected among 29,579 non-smokers in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective population-based cohort. The evaluation of whether or not dietary factors (β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, isothiocyanates, and soy isoflavones) modified the relationship between SHS exposure and CHD mortality was conducted within multivariable Cox proportional hazards models by creating an interaction term between the potential dietary effect modifier (lowest quartile of intake versus the second through fourth quartiles of intake) and the SHS exposure (none versus living with at least one smoker[s]). Evidence for a main-effects association between SHS exposure and risk for CHD mortality was not observed. In stratified analyses by levels of selected dietary nutrient intake, fiber modified the effects of SHS exposure on risk for CHD mortality (P for interaction = 0.02). The adjusted hazards ratio for SHS exposure (living with at least one smoker[s] versus living with no smokers) and CHD mortality was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.63) for those with low-fiber intake. In contrast, among those with high-fiber intake, there was no association with SHS exposure. We provide evidence that a diet high in fiber may ameliorate the harmful effects of SHS exposure on risk for CHD mortality.
    Nutrition 07/2013; 29(11-12). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.04.003 · 3.05 Impact Factor