Metabolomic analysis reveals differences in umbilical vein plasma metabolites between normal and growth-restricted fetal pigs during late gestation.
ABSTRACT Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem for both human health and animal production due to its association with high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality, low efficiency of food utilization, permanent adverse effects on postnatal growth and development, and long-term health and productivity of the offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms for IUGR are largely unknown. In this study, one IUGR fetus and one normal body weight (NBW) fetus were obtained from each of 9 gilts at each of 2 gestational ages (d 90 and 110). Metabolomes of umbilical vein plasma in IUGR and NBW fetuses were determined by MS, while hormones, amino acids, and related metabolites in maternal and fetal plasma were measured using assay kits and chromatographic methods. Metabolites (including glucose, urea, ammonia, amino acids, and lipids) in umbilical vein plasma exhibited a cluster of differences between IUGR and NBW fetuses on d 90 and 110 of gestation. These changes in the IUGR group are associated with disorders of nutrient and energy metabolism as well as endocrine imbalances, which may contribute to the retardation of fetal growth and development. The findings help provide information regarding potential mechanisms responsible for IUGR in swine and also have important implications for the design of effective strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat IUGR in other mammalian species, including humans.
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal mortality is high among small-for-gestational age (SGA) piglets and continues to be an economic burden and threat to animal welfare. As the physiological role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in perinatal development and gastrointestinal function in the pig remains unknown, the aim of this study was to assess the enteric distribution of 5-HT cells and to determine 5-HT together with its precursor tryptophan in the serum of perinatal normal and SGA piglets. For this purpose, proximal and distal parts of the small intestine (SI) were processed for immunohistochemical analysis to assess the presence of 5-HT endocrine cells. Serum 5-HT was measured with ELISA, whereas its precursor, that is, the free fraction of tryptophan (FFT) together with albumin-bound tryptophan and total tryptophan, were analysed with HPLC in postnatal piglets. In addition, the morphological growth patterns of the different intestinal tissue layers of both normal and SGA piglets were stereologically analysed. The stereological volume density of 5-HT enteroendocrine cells showed a significant interaction effect between age and region. Indeed, the amount of 5-HT cells in both the proximal and distal part of the SI tended to decrease according to age, with the lowest values detected at day 3 postpartum. No differences could be observed related to BW. Interestingly, the serum concentration of 5-HT was higher in normal piglets compared with SGA piglets. Moreover, the ratio of FFT to total tryptophan was significantly affected by age and BW. Normal piglets had, on average, a lower FFT/total tryptophan ratio compared with SGA piglets. An approximate linear decrease was observed with increasing age. Finally, the immaturity of the intestinal system of the SGA piglets was not reflected in altered volume densities of the different intestinal layers. To conclude, although no BW effect could be detected in the distribution of enteric 5-HT cells, serum 5-HT and the ratio of FFT to total tryptophan ratio showed significant differences between normal piglets and their SGA littermates.animal 03/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common concerns in human obstetrics and domestic animal production. It is usually caused by placental insufficiency, which decreases fetal uptake of nutrients (especially amino acids) from the placenta. Amino acids are not only building blocks for protein but also key regulators of metabolic pathways in fetoplacental development. The enhanced demands of amino acids by the developing conceptus must be met via active transport systems across the placenta as normal pregnancy advances. Growing evidence indicates that IUGR is associated with a reduction in placental amino acid transport capacity and metabolic pathways within the embryonic/fetal development. The positive relationships between amino acid concentrations in circulating maternal blood and placental amino acid transport into fetus encourage designing new therapies to prevent or treat IUGR by enhancing amino acid availability in maternal diets or maternal circulation. Despite the positive effects of available dietary interventions, nutritional therapy for IUGR is still in its infancy. Based on understanding of the underlying mechanisms whereby amino acids promote fetal growth and of their dietary requirements by IUGR, supplementation with functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) hold great promise for preventing fetal growth restriction and improving health and growth of IUGR offspring.Amino Acids 03/2014; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolomics, the systematic analysis of potential metabolites in a biological specimen, has been increasingly applied to discovering biomarkers, identifying perturbed pathways, measuring therapeutic targets, and discovering new drugs. By analyzing and verifying the significant difference in metabolic profiles and changes of metabolite biomarkers, metabolomics enables us to better understand substance metabolic pathways which can clarify the mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM). Corydalis yanhusuo alkaloid (CA) is a major component of Qizhiweitong (QZWT) prescription which has been used for treating gastric ulcer for centuries and its mechanism remains unclear completely. Metabolite profiling was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS) and in conjunction with multivariate data analysis and pathway analysis. The statistic software Mass Profiller Prossional (MPP) and statistic method including ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for discovering novel potential biomarkers to clarify mechanism of CA in treating acid injected rats with gastric ulcer. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their base-line values after CA treatment according to the PCA score plots. Ten different potential biomarkers and seven key metabolic pathways contributing to the treatment of gastric ulcer were discovered and identified. Among the pathways, sphingophospholipid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism related network were acutely perturbed. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of genes related to the two pathways for verifying the above results. The results show that changed biomarkers and pathways may provide evidence to insight into drug action mechanisms and enable us to increase research productivity toward metabolomics drug discovery.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e82499. · 3.53 Impact Factor