A Genetic Risk Variant for Myocardial Infarction on Chromosome 6p24 Is Associated With Impaired Central Hemodynamic Indexes
ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified novel variants associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in Caucasians. We hypothesized that those variants whose mechanism of risk is currently unknown, confer risk via pathways mediating arterial wave reflections which is an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at eight MI risk loci were genotyped and correlated with noninvasively determined pulse wave analysis (PWA)-derived central hemodynamic indexes (augmentation index (AIx); augmented pressure (AP); time to reflected wave (TrW) and central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP)) in two independent Caucasian populations including (i) those free of measured cardiovascular risk factors (n = 133) and (ii) a community-based population (n = 270).
Of the eight SNPs examined in the healthy group, the variants at loci 6p24 (AIx and AP both P < 0.001, TrW P = 0.02) and 21q22 (AIx P = 0.002, TrW P = 0.037) were significantly associated with PWA indexes. In the replication group, only the 6p24 variant correlated with these phenotypes (AIx P = 0.005, AP P = 0.049, TrW P = 0.013). In the pooled population (n = 403), no new associations were identified but the association with 6p24 and AIx remained significant even after Bonferroni correction and adjustment for covariates including age, mean arterial pressure, height, gender, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking (AIx (P = 0.03)). Each copy of the risk allele C increased the AIx by 3.5%.
The GWAS discovered MI risk variant at 6p24 in the protein phosphatase 1 regulator gene (PHACTR1) is associated with adverse arterial wave reflection indexes and may mediate MI risk through this pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD), including myocardial infarction (MI), is the main cause of death in the world. Genome-wide association studies have identified dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CAD/MI. One of the most robust CAD/MI genetic associations is with intronic SNPs in the gene PHACTR1 on chromosome 6p24. How these PHACTR1 SNPs influence CAD/MI risk, and whether PHACTR1 itself is the causal gene at the locus, is currently unknown. Using genetic fine-mapping and DNA resequencing experiments, we prioritized an intronic SNP (rs9349379) in PHACTR1 as causal variant. We showed that this variant is an expression quantitative trait locus for PHACTR1 expression in human coronary arteries. Experiments in endothelial cell extracts confirmed that alleles at rs9349379 are differentially bound by the transcription factors myocyte enhancer factor-2. We engineered a deletion of this myocyte enhancer factor-2-binding site using CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing methodology. Heterozygous endothelial cells carrying this deletion express 35% less PHACTR1. Finally, we found no evidence that PHACTR1 expression levels are induced when stimulating human endothelial cells with vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, or shear stress. Our results establish a link between intronic SNPs in PHACTR1, myocyte enhancer factor-2 binding, and transcriptional functions at the locus, PHACTR1 expression levels in coronary arteries and CAD/MI risk. Because PHACTR1 SNPs are not associated with the traditional risk factors for CAD/MI (eg, blood lipids or pressure, diabetes mellitus), our results suggest that PHACTR1 may influence CAD/MI risk through as yet unknown mechanisms in the vascular endothelium. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2015; 35(6). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305534 · 5.53 Impact Factor