Investigations into the landfill behaviour of pretreated wastes.
ABSTRACT Mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste has become popular throughout the UK and other parts of Europe to enable compliance with the Landfill Directive. Pretreatment will have a major influence on the degradation and settlement characteristics of the waste in landfills owing to the changes in the composition and properties of the wastes. This paper presents and compares the results of long term landfill behaviour of the UK and German MBT wastes pretreated to different standards. The gas generating potential, leachate quality and settlement characteristics are highlighted. The results reveal that it is possible to achieve stabilisation of MBT waste within a year and the biogas yield and leachate strength of German MBT waste was significantly reduced compared with the UK MBT waste. The settlement resulting from mechanical creep is more significant than the biodegradation induced settlement in both cases.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of applied compression on the nature of liquid flow and hence the movement of contaminants within municipal solid waste was examined by means of thirteen tracer tests conducted on five separate waste samples. The conservative nature of bromide, lithium and deuterium tracers was evaluated and linked to the presence of degradation in the sample. Lithium and deuterium tracers were non-conservative in the presence of degradation, whereas the bromide remained effectively conservative under all conditions. Solute diffusion times into and out of less mobile blocks of waste were compared for each test under the assumption of dominantly dual-porosity flow. Despite the fact that hydraulic conductivity changed strongly with applied stress, the block diffusion times were found to be much less sensitive to compression. A simple conceptual model, whereby flow is dominated by sub-parallel low permeability obstructions which define predominantly horizontally aligned less mobile zones, is able to explain this result. Compression tends to narrow the gap between the obstructions, but not significantly alter the horizontal length scale. Irrespective of knowledge of the true flow pattern, these results show that simple models of solute flushing from landfill which do not include depth dependent changes in solute transport parameters are justified.Waste Management 11/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The leaching behavior of wastes coming out from Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants is still poorly investigated in literature. This work presents an attempt to provide a deeper insight about the contaminants release from this type of waste. To this end, results of several batch and up-flow percolation tests, carried out on different biologically treated waste samples collected from an Italian MBT plant, are reported. The obtained results showed that, despite MBT wastes are characterized by relatively high heavy metals content, only a limited amount was actually soluble and thus bioavailable. Namely, the release percentage was generally lower than 5% of the total content with the only exception of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Zn, Ni and Co with release percentages up to 20%. The information provided by the different tests also allowed to highlight some key factors governing the kinetics release of DOC and metals from this type of material. In particular, results of up-flow column percolation tests showed that metals such as Cr, Mg, Ni and Zn followed essentially the leaching trend of DOC suggesting that these elements were mainly released as organo-compounds. Actually, a strong linear correlation (R(2)>0.8) between DOC and metals concentration in eluates was observed, especially for Cr, Ni and Zn (R(2)>0.94). Thus, combining the results of batch and up-flow column percolation tests, partition coefficients between DOC and metals concentration were derived. These data, coupled with a simplified screening model for DOC release, allowed to get a very good prediction of metal release during the different column tests. Finally, combining the experimental data with a simplified model provided some useful indications for the evaluation of long-term emissions from this type of waste in landfill disposal scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Waste Management 01/2015; · 3.16 Impact Factor
- Geo-Shanghai 2014; 05/2014