Conference Paper

A conformal 10 GHz rectenna for wireless powering of piezoelectric sensor electronics

Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA
DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2005.1516543 Conference: Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005 IEEE MTT-S International
Source: IEEE Xplore


This paper presents the design, implementation and characterization of a rectenna array for wireless powering of sensor electronics for airframe fatigue detection. The rectenna aperture is powered 5 minutes at a time during inspection with a requirement of ±15V at 100mW. The maximum incident RF power is 10mW/cm2. A single rectenna element at this incident power density has an output power of 5 mW and an estimated efficiency of 50%. Each of the 25 antenna elements has an integrated rectifier, the outputs of which are combined in series to achieve the total required voltage and power at an estimated efficiency of 40%.

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Available from: Zoya Popovic, Mar 19, 2014
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    • "Many electronic devices operate in conditions where it is costly, inconvenient, or impossible to replace a battery, or deliver wired power. Examples include sensors for health monitoring of patients [16], [17], aircraft structural monitoring [18], [19], sensors in hazardous environments, sensors for covert operations, etc. Typical requirements for such sensors are small size, low maintenance, low available power levels, unknown exact location, presence of materials , and multipath propagation. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses far-field wireless powering for low-power wireless sensors, with applications to sensing in environments where it is difficult or impossible to change batteries and where the exact position of the sensors might not be known. With expected radio-frequency (RF) power densities in the 20-200- μW/cm2 range, and desired small sensor overall size, low-power nondirective wireless powering is appropriate for sensors that transmit data at low duty cycles. The sensor platform is powered through an antenna which receives incident electromagnetic waves in the gigahertz frequency range, couples the energy to a rectifier circuit which charges a storage device (e.g., thin-film battery) through an efficient power management circuit, and the entire platform, including sensors and a low-power wireless transmitter, and is controlled through a low-power microcontroller. For low incident power density levels, codesign of the RF powering and the power management circuits is required for optimal performance. Results for hybrid and monolithic implementations of the power management circuitry are presented with integrated antenna rectifiers operating in the 1.96-GHz cellular and in 2.4-GHz industrial-scientific-medical (ISM) bands.
    Proceedings of the IEEE 06/2013; 101(6):1397-1409. DOI:10.1109/JPROC.2013.2244053 · 4.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Results demonstrating high efficiency rectification at low incident RF power densities, , have been published for both broadband and narrowband transmission with circular and dual linear polarization rectennas in [18]–[20]. An example of a 2.4 GHz dual polarized patch rectenna is shown in Fig. 2(a). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an approach and associated circuitry for harvesting near maximum output power from electromagnetic waves in the RF/microwave region of the spectrum with variable incident power densities in the range of tens of muW/cm<sup>2</sup>. It is shown that open loop resistor emulation at the input port of a power converter is a suitable solution for tracking the peak power point of a low-power rectifying antenna source over a wide range of incident RF power densities. A boost converter with a simple low-power control approach for resistor emulation is presented. A hardware design example with detailed efficiency analysis is given using commercially available discrete circuitry. Experimental results are presented for a system harvesting 420 muW to 8 muW from a 6 cm times 6 cm rectifying antenna with incident RF power ranging from 70 muW/cm<sup>2</sup> to 30 muW/cm<sup>2</sup>, respectively. The results demonstrate that resistor emulation is a simple and practical approach to energy harvesting with variable low-power radiative RF sources.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 06/2008; 23(3-23):1494 - 1501. DOI:10.1109/TPEL.2008.921167 · 6.01 Impact Factor
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    • "In the past few decades, a considerable amount of work has been done in the area of wireless powering, including RF inductive powering for short ranges [1], high power density directive powering in the microwave frequency range [2] [3] [4], as well as low-power near-field interrogation with RFID tags, and medium-and low-power density powering of low-power sensors [5] [6] [7] [8]. This paper addresses low-power sensor applications as described in Fig.1. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a low-power (~10 muW) 2.45-GHz wireless sensor platform consisting of a three-axis accelerometer, thermometer and skin conductivity sensor. The sensor is powered wirelessly from a distance of around 3-4 m with narrowband 2.45-GHz dual-polarized low power density radiation of around 100 muW/cm<sup>2</sup>. Efficient power management enables the powering function to be independent of the wireless transmission and sensor data gathering. The sensor platform does not require battery replacements, and is intended for low-maintenance assistive technology, elder-care and medical applications.
    Wireless Technologies, 2007 European Conference on; 11/2007
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