Conference Paper

A conformal 10 GHz rectenna for wireless powering of piezoelectric sensor electronics

Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA
DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.2005.1516543 Conference: Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005 IEEE MTT-S International
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT This paper presents the design, implementation and characterization of a rectenna array for wireless powering of sensor electronics for airframe fatigue detection. The rectenna aperture is powered 5 minutes at a time during inspection with a requirement of ±15V at 100mW. The maximum incident RF power is 10mW/cm2. A single rectenna element at this incident power density has an output power of 5 mW and an estimated efficiency of 50%. Each of the 25 antenna elements has an integrated rectifier, the outputs of which are combined in series to achieve the total required voltage and power at an estimated efficiency of 40%.

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    ABSTRACT: A novel design of a two-port printed microstrip rectenna with compact structure for communication systems is presented. An aperture-coupled dual polarization patch antenna is utilized as the receiving antenna. The vertical feed port receives the microwave energy and transfers it to the rectifying circuit for dc power generation, while the horizontal feed port is used for data communication, with high isolation between the two ports. This patch antenna includes harmonic suppression functionality, which is essential for high microwave-direct current (mw-dc) conversion efficiency. A co-simulation procedure using HFSS and ADS for the analysis of the rectenna and the rectifying circuit design is used. This design assumes low input power for the rectifying circuit to comply with safety standards. A mw-dc conversion efficient of 63% is measured with a 900 Ω load, 5.78 GHz operation frequency, and 25 mW receiving power. For the communication port, the measured reflection coefficient is -18 dB at 6.1 GHz center frequency, the gain is 7.0 dBi, and the cross polarization in the broadside direction is - 15 dB.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses far-field wireless powering for low-power wireless sensors, with applications to sensing in environments where it is difficult or impossible to change batteries and where the exact position of the sensors might not be known. With expected radio-frequency (RF) power densities in the 20-200- μW/cm2 range, and desired small sensor overall size, low-power nondirective wireless powering is appropriate for sensors that transmit data at low duty cycles. The sensor platform is powered through an antenna which receives incident electromagnetic waves in the gigahertz frequency range, couples the energy to a rectifier circuit which charges a storage device (e.g., thin-film battery) through an efficient power management circuit, and the entire platform, including sensors and a low-power wireless transmitter, and is controlled through a low-power microcontroller. For low incident power density levels, codesign of the RF powering and the power management circuits is required for optimal performance. Results for hybrid and monolithic implementations of the power management circuitry are presented with integrated antenna rectifiers operating in the 1.96-GHz cellular and in 2.4-GHz industrial-scientific-medical (ISM) bands.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract-Structural health monitoring is an important safety factor in aviation that might benefit from advanced smart systems for damage sensing. This paper presents a new concept for a wireless crack and corrosion detection system for onboard health monitoring of aircraft. The sensor which is use to identify the structural damage and material loss on the surface of the aircraft by Ferrous Fluid under magnetic field. The Ferro fluid shall be applied as an emulsion on the test substrate. When a crack occurs, due to the crack there will a flux leakage. By constantly monitoring the flux on the surface of the substrate, whenever there is a flux leakage we can correlate it to a crack. The Ferro fluid shall be a ferromagnetic material and the particles should be in sub micron or nanometer region. These particles shall be mixed in suitable surfactants to get a uniformly monodispersed emulsion. This emulsion is to be applied on the test substrate and then the flux generated due to the emulsion shall be first measured. This measured flux density shall be taken as the baseline. Any deviation from the baseline shall be considered as flux leakage. It is possible to differentiate between the signals received from a crack and corrosion. One of the advantages of the present set up using Ferrous Fluid Sensor (FFS) for the generation and detection of signals can be easily processed by wireless application. The signal sensed by the FFS is transmitted to the cockpit through the wireless sensor network for monitoring of crack and corrosion on the surface of the aircraft.

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