Cholesterol gallstones

Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 16.72). 10/1978; 75(3):514-6.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Since introduction of oral contraceptive steroids a variety of physiologic-adaptive and toxic side effects have been reported. -a review is given. The study reports also four cases of hepatic vein thrombosis (Budd-Chiari-Syndrome--Venoocclusive disease) and three cases of benign hepatic tumors (liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia) in young women following 2- to 5-year treatment with oral contraceptive steroids.
    The Science of Nature 11/1979; 66(10):489-97. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increased risk of cholelithiasis during intake of oral contraceptives may be due to estrogen-induced saturation of the bile with cholesterol. In a randomized, prospective, crossed-over double-blind study 20 healthy women after roentgenological exclusion of gall-stones received either 1.0 mg of norethindrone acetate and 50 microgram ethinyl estradiol daily - as usual in oral contraception - for 21 days with 7 days of placebo treatment in each cycle or one fifth of this hormone dose in form of a continuous daily medication. After a 4 month's treatment the medication form was crossed-over. At the beginning of the study, before the cross-over and after the study bile was collected by duodenal intubation after a 12-h fast and the lithogenic index as a measure for cholesterol saturation of the bile was determined. No correlation between the dose and the lithogenic index was demonstrated, neither in 15 women, who had used oral contraceptives before the study nor in five women without any previous hormonal contraceptives.
    Klinische Wochenschrift 03/1982; 60(3):153-7. DOI:10.1007/BF01711279
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cholesterol gall stones in young women has increased since the introduction of oral contraceptives. The synthetic female sex hormones used in these preparations, increase the degree of cholesterol saturation in bile. To determine whether oestrogens, progestagens, or both, are responsible for the change in biliary cholesterol saturation index, a prospective randomised, controlled study was performed. A significant increase in the cholesterol saturation index of bile was observed when either 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 150 micrograms norgestrel (p = 0.01) or 50 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 250 micrograms norgestrel (p less than 0.01) were ingested daily for two months. No change in the cholesterol saturation index was observed when 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol alone, or 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 2.5 mg norethisterone were used. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol saturation index did not appear to involve bile acid metabolism. These results indicate that the progestagen, norgestrel, and not as previously thought the oestrogen, ethinyloestradiol, is responsible for the increase in cholesterol saturation of bile which accompanies the use of oral contraceptives.
    Gut 04/1983; 24(3):253-9. DOI:10.1136/gut.24.3.253 · 14.66 Impact Factor
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