Cholesterol gallstones.

Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 12.82). 10/1978; 75(3):514-6.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Possible risk factors for gallstone formation were examined and the concentrations of biliary lipids and each bile acid in the hepatic and gallbladder bile of hamsters were quantified. Forty female golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 4 groups according to diet; Group I, given control chow, Group II, given an ethinylestradiol and cholesterol supplemented diet, Group III, given a glucose rich diet without induced diabetes mellitus, and Group IV, given a glucose rich diet with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin injection. The formation of cholesterol crystals but not gallstones was induced in Group II associated with a significantly decreased total bile acid concentration in the gallbladder bile but not in the hepatic bile. The formation of cholesterol gallstones and crystals with significantly higher concentrations of cholesterol and phospholipid was observed in Group III, while neither the formation of gallstones nor lithogenicity was enhanced by diabetes mellitus. However, a quite different lithogenicity was evident between the hepatic and gallbladder bile of the Group IV animals. These results suggest that neither the consumption of oral contraceptives nor diabetes mellitus induces gallstone formation, but that these factors can be responsible for dysfunction of the gallbladder.
    The Japanese Journal of Surgery 10/1990; 20(5):567-76.
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    ABSTRACT: The cricopharyngeus is a narrow band of muscle strategically placed between the pharynx and esophagus. Its normal function is vital to the efficient transfer of foodstuffs to the esophagus. Cine- and videoradiography are the major methods of studying the pharyngo-esophageal segment. More recently, refinements in manometric methods have complemented radiology, and have enabled us to achieve a better understanding of cricopharyngeal function in health and disease. Such an understanding of the physical forces necessary for normal bolus transfer, and the recognition of abnormal patterns of pharyngeal and cricopharyngeal motility, will hopefully lead us to a more rational approach to therapy in patients with pharyngeal dysphagia.
    Dysphagia 02/1993; 8(3):244-51. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cholesterol gall stones in young women has increased since the introduction of oral contraceptives. The synthetic female sex hormones used in these preparations, increase the degree of cholesterol saturation in bile. To determine whether oestrogens, progestagens, or both, are responsible for the change in biliary cholesterol saturation index, a prospective randomised, controlled study was performed. A significant increase in the cholesterol saturation index of bile was observed when either 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 150 micrograms norgestrel (p = 0.01) or 50 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 250 micrograms norgestrel (p less than 0.01) were ingested daily for two months. No change in the cholesterol saturation index was observed when 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol alone, or 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol plus 2.5 mg norethisterone were used. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol saturation index did not appear to involve bile acid metabolism. These results indicate that the progestagen, norgestrel, and not as previously thought the oestrogen, ethinyloestradiol, is responsible for the increase in cholesterol saturation of bile which accompanies the use of oral contraceptives.
    Gut 04/1983; 24(3):253-9. · 10.73 Impact Factor