In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of water dispersible core-shell structured Fe/Fe-oxide with average size 13 plusmn1.4 nm and Fe-oxide nanoparticles. Unlike the previously reported different approaches, both types of particles can be synthesized by following the same route with a small variation in the Fe(CO)5 molar concentration and oxygen free environments. The oleate/oleylamine coated nanoparticles were surface modified with tetra-methyl-ammonium-hydroxide (TMAOH) to make them water dispersible. TGA analysis provided direct evidence that TMAOH adds to the surface of the oleic acid and oleylamine coated particles making them well disperse and stable in water as is suggested from the zeta potential measurements also.
"The unique physical and chemical characteristics of nano-scale materials have led to a recent expansion in the production of engineered nanomaterials. For example, synthetic Fe oxide NPs have a variety of industrial applications (Beker et al., 2010; Pham et al., 2008; Khurshid et al., 2009), with hematite NPs in particular used in pigments, magnetic bioseparation in biotechnology, and lithium-ion batteries (Wang et al., 2005; Park et al., 2007; Zeng et al., 2008). Consequently , anthropogenic NPs are released into the environment during production, handling, use, and disposal; there has been a concomitant increase of interest in the effects of NPs on the environment and the pollution risks to environmental quality (Darlington et al., 2009; Kaegi et al., 2010; Nowack et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3-67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metallic iron nanoparticles with a crystalline iron oxide shell were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5] in octadecene in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. The effect of different synthetic parameters was investigated in details including the refluxing time and temperature, the injection temperature of iron precursor and the surfactant concentrations. The particles size can be tuned by controlling the injection temperature of iron precursor. Particle composition was adjusted by controlling the refluxing time. Both XRD diffraction and magnetic measurements indicated that these particles are very stable against oxidation which was further evidenced by microstructure analysis.
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