A Fault-Tolerant Interconnect Mechanism for NMR Nanoarchitectures
ABSTRACT Redundancy techniques, such as N -tuple modular redundancy (NMR), has been widely used to correct faulty behavior of components and achieve high reliability. Almost all redundancy-based strategies rely on a majority voting. The voter, therefore, becomes a critical unit for the correct operation of any NMR system. In this paper, we propose a voterless fault-tolerant strategy to implement a robust NMR system design. We show that using a novel fault-tolerant communication mechanism, namely logic code division multiple access, we can transfer data with extremely low error rates among N modules and completely eliminate the need for a centralized voter unit. Such a highly reliable strategy is vital for future nanosystems in which high defect rate is expected. Experimental results are also reported to verify the concept, clarify the design procedure, and measure the system's reliability.
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ABSTRACT: High computing capabilities and limited number of input/output pins of modern integrated circuits require an efficient and reliable interconnection architecture. The proposed communication scheme allows a large number of IP cores to send data over a single wire using logic code division multiple access (LCDMA) technique. Reliability is increased using duplication with logic comparison (DLC) which enhances the error correction capability of the conventional LCDMA approach. Two implementations of the proposed LCDMA-DLC interconnection scheme, FPGA and ASIC, are considered. It is shown that LCDMA-DLC scheme reduces the hardware overhead and power consumption, with slightly better bit error rate (BER) performance, in comparison to the conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR) approach. MATLAB simulation results for LCDMA-DLC scheme with different spreading code lengths, at a constant SNR=10, show that BER improvement ranges from 5.8 times, for code length of 16 bits, up to 175 times, for code length of 32 bits in respect to 8-bit code length. In addition, the obtained results of ASIC implementation show that area and power overheads are approximately 3 times for LCDMA-TMR, and 2 times for LCDMA-DLC, in respect to the original LCDMA scheme, respectively.Microelectronics Reliability 12/2014; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptors are an important class of therapeutic drug targets by virtue of their roles in the regulation of diverse cellular functions. Recent advances in the expression of heterologous G-protein-coupled receptors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have led to the development of sensitive and selective assays of their ligand-induced activation. Implementation of this new technology in the high-throughput screening of compound libraries has enabled the discovery of novel ligands for the G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptor. This article describes the broad applicability of the technology and its use in drug discovery.Trends in Biotechnology 01/1998; 15(12):487-94. DOI:10.1016/S0167-7799(97)01119-0 · 10.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper a novel Voter Based Markov model will be presented for evaluation of the reliability in a multi-port power electronic interface. In the new Markov model, a new technique called Voter Based State Reduction (VBSR) technique will be introduced for reducing the number of states in Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The VBSR technique will simplify the reliability analysis of power electronic systems. It will also make the results of the reliability assessment more meaningful. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed model, reliability of a Multi-port Power Electronics Interface (MPEI) will be evaluated using both conventional and Voter based Markov model. Comparison of FMEA and reliability evaluation results between conventional Markov model and the new Voter Based Markov model confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.