Total Ionization Dose Effects and Single-Event Effects Studies of a 0.25 µ µm Silicon-On-Sapphire CMOS
Tiankuan Liu2, Wickham Chen1, Ping Gui1, Cheng-AnYang2,
Junheng Zhang1, Peiqing Zhu1, Annie C. Xiang2, Jingbo Ye2, and Ryszard Stroynowski2
1Department of Electrical Engineering
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX, 75275
2Department of Physics
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX, 75275
Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) CMOS is an attractive technology for radiation-tolerant circuits design. It eliminates
single-event latch-up and has a smaller sensitive volume for single-event upsets (SEUs) and single-event transients
(SETs) compared to Bulk CMOS technology [1, 2]. However, like any Silicon-On-Insulator technology, SOS
technology has back-channel leakage as part of the total ionization dose (TID) effects [3, 4].
We are exploring the applicability of a commercial SOS technology for the front-end readout ASICs in the
optical link systems for the ATLAS  upgrade at the Large Hadron Collider . This paper presents detailed
studies of both the TID and single-event effects (SEE) in Peregrine’s 0.25 µm Silicon-On-Sapphire (UltraCMOS®)
process. A test chip with various test structures was designed and fabricated using this technology. The chip was
irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source for TID study and with a 220 MeV proton beam for SEE study, both up to a
dose comparable to that in our application. Reported here are the TID and SEE results with a dose up to 100 krad.
Our results show that with a grounded sapphire substrate, the overall leakage current including back-channel
leakage becomes negligible; the threshold voltage variations due to radiation for NMOS and PMOS are mitigated to
about 55mV and 45mV respectively. The technology also demonstrates good SEE immunity.
THE SOS CMOS TEST CHIP
The basic features of the 0.25µm SOS CMOS technology used in the test chip are given in Table 1.
Table 1. The Technology features of the test chip
Gate Oxide Thickness 6 nm
0.25µm Silicon-on-Sapphire CMOS
Device isolation LOCOS
Interconnectivity 3 metal layers
NMOS polysilicon gates doping N+
PMOS polysilicon gates doping P+
The test chip contains an 8×12 array of NMOS and PMOS transistors with different channel widths (80 and 40
µm) and lengths (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 µm), implemented in four different types of layout: 4-finger, 8-finger, and 16-
finger, all in standard layout, and enclosed-layout transistor (ELT) . Since the edge leakage current is proportional
to the number of edges in a transistor, the comparison between the leakage current in ELT and multi-finger
transistors provides information on how much the back-channel leakage and edge leakage contributes to the total
leakage current. To minimize the effects of process variations, each transistor of a particular size and layout has
three identical copies. The transistors are spread out in the transistor array for better measurement statistics.
Transistors ArrayTransistors Array
Register #1 Register #1
Osc. #1Osc. #1
Ring Oscillator #2 Ring Oscillator #2
Shift Register #4 Shift Register #4
Register #2Register #2
PLL components PLL components
Figure 1: Photograph of the SOS test chip
MEASUREMENT RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. TID results
To characterize the TID effects, the I-V characteristic curve of each transistor is measured using a picoameter
and three programmable DC power supplies. The current ID is measured as a function of VGS before and after the
radiation while VDS is fixed at 0.1V for NMOS and –0.1V for PMOS. The VGS sweeps from 0 to 1.5V when
measuring NMOS transistors and from -1.5 to 0 V in the PMOS case.
The test chips were irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source up to 100 krad(Si) followed by annealing studies at
room temperature. Two different setups for the test chips were carried out during the irradiation: with the sapphire
substrate left floating and with the substrate grounded.
1. With the sapphire substrate floating.
In the first TID test, the sapphire substrate of the chip was left floating. During irradiation the NMOS transistors
are biased with VDS = 2.5 V and the PMOS with VDS = -2.5 V.
Shown in Fig. 2 are the I-V curves of NMOS and PMOS transistors (W/L = 40/0.25 um, ELT) before and
immediately after the irradiation at two different total doses with a dose rate of 1.2 krad/hr. At a low dose (33
krad(Si)), the I-V curves of the NMOS transistors shift left (Vt decreases) as the leakage current increases. At a
high dose, the I-V curves shift right (Vt increases) without an increase in leakage current. In contrast to the NMOS
case, the I-V curves of PMOS transistors (W/L = 40/0.25um, ELT) stay unchanged at the low dose (≤ 33 krad (Si))
but move left (|Vt| decreases) at high dose (86 krad (Si)) with an increase in leakage current. This observation
indicates that the net trapped charge in both PMOS and NMOS devices is positive at low dose and becomes negative
at high dose. This result is new compared to what have been reported in literature. In [3, 4], trapped positive charge
is believed to induce leakage current in NMOS, but not in PMOS. In  trapped negative charge is believed to
induce the leakage in PMOS, but not in NMOS.
Fig. 2. The I-V curves of NMOS (left) and PMOS (right) ELT transistors
Shown in Fig. 3 is a study on the contribution of edge and back channel leakage to the total leakage current. The
transistors of size (40µm, 0.25µm) were irradiated at 1.2krad/hr. From the figures we see that the leakage current in
standard layout transistors is higher than that in an ELT for both PMOS and NMOS; and the back-channel leakage
current accounts for a large portion of the overall leakage current (about 30% for a 16-finger transistor and about
50% for a 4-finger transistor).
Fig. 3 The layout effect on NMOS (left) and PMOS (right) transistors
The leakage current vanishes in for both NMOS and PMOS after a 120-day of annealing at room temperature,
indicating that the leakage current would not be a problem in realistic dose rate in our applications. The annealing
has no significant effect on the threshold voltage shift. The annealing process is roughly linear with a logarithmic
time axis, indicating that the dominating annealing process follows the tunneling annealing model .
2. With the substrate grounded.
We did a second on-line TID measurement on the test chip with the sapphire substrate grounded at 0V. During
irradiation and the measurement, the NMOS transistors are biased with VDS = 0.1 V and the PMOS with VDS = -0.1
With the substrate grounded, we observed that the leakage current in both NMOS and PMOS becomes
negligible, both during and after the irradiation. This is shown in figure 4. In addition, the threshold voltage shift is
also greatly reduced, with about 180 mV of increase in Vtn for NMOS (W/L = 40/0.25 um, 16 fingers) and 90 mV
of decrease in |Vtp| for PMOS (W/L = 40/0.25 um, 16 fingers).
Figure 4 (a) NMOS threshold voltage change (left) and
leakage current after 100Krad irradiation.
NMOS W/L=40/0.25 16 fingers
B. SEE results
Figure 4 (b) PMOS threshold voltage change and leakage
current after 100Krad irradiation.
PMOS W/L=40/0.25 16 fingers
An online test was done on the shifter registers in the chip at a dose of 100krad under a 220 MeV proton
beam. A pseudo random bit stream was written into these test elements at a rate of 40Mb/s during irradiation. The
outputs of the test elements were compared with their respective inputs for errors. No errors were reported before,
during and after irradiation period. The current consumption of these test elements was monitored. Relating to the
functionality of our test structures, there was no significant current change that inhibited device operation. When
comparing standard geometry based shift registers to enclosed geometry based shift registers, there was no
difference in functionality and SEE immunity. In addition, since the standard geometry based shift register worked
error free for the given radiation period, the resistive hardening technique showed no further benefit in relation to
SEE immunity. From the results of the test elements up to 100krad, we report that typical SEU’s and SEB’s were
not seen in our experiment on the 0.25 µm (UltraCMOS®) technology. Table 2 shows fluence, error count # and
cross section data for the different type of test elements in our experiment.
Table 2. Fluence, Error Count # and Cross Section Data for Test Elements
Test Element Type Fluence(proton/cm2) Error Count # Cross section(cm2)
Std Shift Register
ELT Shift Register
Res. Hard Shift Register
SET free logic latch
We have performed detailed studies of both TID and SEE effects in Peregrine’s 0.25 µm Silicon-On-
Sapphire (UltraCMOS®) process. Our test results show that with the sapphire substrate being grounded, the overall
leakage current including back-channel leakage for both NMOS and PMOS are negligible during and after
irradiation; the threshold voltage variations due to TID for both NMOS and PMOS are mitigated down to about
55mV and 45mV respectively. SEE test results show that this process has exhibited SEE immunity up to 100krad of
The authors thank NSF/ATLAS program, Peregrine Semiconductor Corp. and Jim Kierstead, Francesco Lanni at
BNL for their support of this work.
 C. Claeys and E. Simoen, Radiation Effects in Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Berlin
Heidelberg, ISBN 3-540-43393-7, Springer-Verlag, 2002.
 Andrew Holmes-Siedle, Len Adams, Handbook of radiation Effects, 2nd edition, New York, Oxford University
 R. A. Kjar and J. Peel, “Radiation Induced Leakage Current In n-Channel SoS Transistors”, IEEE Trans. On
Nuclear Science, Vol. NS-21, Dec. 1974.
 D. Neamen, W. Shedd, and B. Buchanan, “Radiation Induced Charge Trapping at the Silicon Sapphire Substrate
Interface”, IEEE Trans. On Nuclear Science, Vol. NS-21, Dec. 1974.
 The ATLAS Experiment: http://atlas.ch
 The Large Hadron Collider: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/general/gen_info.htm
 G. Anelli, M. Campbell, M. Delmastro. F. Faccio, S. Florist, A. Giraldo, E. Heijne, P. Jarron,
K. Kloukinas, A. Marchioro, P. Moreira, W. Snoeys, “Radiation Tolerant VLSI Circuits in Standard Deep
Submicron CMOS Technologies for the LHC Experiments: Practical Design Aspects”, IEEE Transaction on
Nuclear Science, Vol. 46, Issue 6, Part 1, Dec. 1999.
 R. Baumann, “ Single-Event Effects in Advanced CMOS Technology”, ,” IEEE Short Course presented at the
2005 NSREC Conference, Seattle, WA, July 11-15, 2005.
 A. Makihara, M. Midorikawa, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Iide, T. Yokose, Y. Tsuchiya, T. Arimitsu, H. Asai, H.
Shindou, S. Kuboyama, and S. Matsuda, “Hardness-by-Design Approach for 0.15 um Fully Depleted CMOS/SOI
Digital Logic Devices With Enhanced SEU/SET Immunity”, IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science, Vol. 53, Issue Download full-text
6, Part 1, Dec. 2006.
 Suraj J. Mathew, Guofu Niu, Steven D. Clark et al, “Radiation-Induced Back-Channel Leakage in SiGe CMOS
on Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) Technology”, IEEE Trans. On Nuclear Science, Vol. 46, No. 6, Dec. 1999.
 Peter S. Winokur, “Total-Dose Radiation Effects (From the Perspective of the Experimentalist)’, IEEE NSREC
Short Course, Measurement and Analysis of Radiation Effects in Devices and ICs, pp. 53 – 57, July, 1992