A New Impedance Measurement System for PZT-Based Structural Health Monitoring
ABSTRACT Recent research has shown that electromechanical (E/M) impedance-based techniques are an efficient strategy for damage sensing in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). The basic principle is to excite the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors attached to the structure and to measure the corresponding electrical impedance. A variation in the electrical impedance indicates a variation in the mechanical impedance and, consequently, structural damage. To measure the electrical impedance, most universities and research centers use expensive, bulky, heavy, and high-powered impedance analyzers, which limit new developments and practical applications. To overcome these issues, this paper presents an efficient and inexpensive methodology for electrical impedance measurement. To verify the efficiency and accuracy of the new methodology, practical tests were carried out, and the results were compared with those obtained using a conventional impedance analyzer.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the implementation of a DAQ-card-based, low-cost impedance analyzer for active structural health monitoring. Two excitation signal sources for efficient and accurate measurement of electromechanical (E/M) impedance were digitally synthesized. To compare these two signal sources for impedance measurement, a simulation for measuring the impedance spectrum of a free piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) was conducted and then followed up with free PWAS impedance spectrum measurement experiments. Finally, the performance of this novel impedance analyzer was compared to that of the HP4194A impedance analyzer using PWAS to detect a disbond on an aluminum spacecraft test panel.11/2012;
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ABSTRACT: The process of implementing a damage identification strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here, damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's performance. A wide variety of highly effective local non-destructive evaluation tools are available for such monitoring. However, the majority of SHM research conducted over the last 30 years has attempted to identify damage in structures on a more global basis. The past 10 years have seen a rapid increase in the amount of research related to SHM as quantified by the significant escalation in papers published on this subject. The increased interest in SHM and its associated potential for significant life-safety and economic benefits has motivated the need for this theme issue.This introduction begins with a brief history of SHM technology development. Recent research has begun to recognize that the SHM problem is fundamentally one of the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) and a paradigm to address such a problem is described in detail herein as it forms the basis for organization of this theme issue. In the process of providing the historical overview and summarizing the SPR paradigm, the subsequent articles in this theme issue are cited in an effort to show how they fit into this overview of SHM. In conclusion, technical challenges that must be addressed if SHM is to gain wider application are discussed in a general manner.Structural Health Monitoring, 01/2010: pages 13 - 43; , ISBN: 9780470612071
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we summarize the hardware and software issues of impedance-based structural health moni- toring based on piezoelectric materials. The basic concept of the method is to use high-frequency structural excitations to monitor the local area of a structure for changes in structural impedance that would indicate imminent damage. A brief overview of research work on experimental and theoretical stud- ies on various structures is considered and several research papers on these topics are cited. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research areas and path forward. Piezoelectric materials acting in the "direct" manner pro- duce an electrical charge when stressed mechanically. Con- versely, a mechanical strain is produced when an electrical field is applied. The direct piezoelectric effect has often been used in sensors such as piezoelectric accelerometers. With the converse effect, piezoelectric materials apply local- ized strains and directly influence the dynamic response of the structural elements when either embedded or surface bonded into a structure. Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in structural dynamics applications because they are lightweight, robust, inexpensive, and come in a variety of forms ranging from thin rectangular patches to complex shapes being used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrications. The applications of piezoelectric mate- rials in structural dynamics are too numerous to mention and are detailed in the literature (Niezrecki et al., 2001; Chopra, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance and effectiveness of impedance-based structural health mon- itoring from both hardware and software standpoints. Imped- ance-based structural health monitoring techniques have been developed as a promising tool for real-time structural dam- age assessment, and are considered as a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method. A key aspect of impedance-based structural health monitoring is the use of piezoceramic (PZT) materials as collocated sensors and actuators. The basis of this active sensing technology is the energy transfer between the actuator and its host mechanical system. It has been shown that the electrical impedance of the PZT material can be directly related to the mechanical impedance of a host structural component where the PZT patch is attached. Uti- lizing the same material for both actuation and sensing not only reduces the number of sensors and actuators, but also reduces the electrical wiring and associated hardware. Fur- thermore, the size and weight of the PZT patch are negligible compared to those of the host structures so that its attach- ment to the structure introduces no impact on dynamic char- acteristics of the structure. A typical deployment of a PZT on a structure being monitored is shown in Figure 1. The first part of this paper (Sections 2 and 3) deals with the theoretical background and design considerations of the impedance-based structural health monitoring. The signal processing of the impedance method is outlined in Section 4. In Section 5, experimental studies using the impedance approaches are summarized and related previous works are listed. Section 6 presents a brief comparison of the imped- ance method with other NDE approaches and, finally, sev- eral future issues are outlined in Section 7. 2. Theoretical BackgroundThe Shock and Vibration Digest 01/2003; 35(6):451-463.