Spectral distortion in diffuse molecular luminescence tomography in turbid media
ABSTRACT The influence of tissue optical properties on the shape of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence emission spectra propagating through multiple centimeters of tissue-like media was investigated. Fluorescence emission spectra measured from 6 cm homogeneous tissue-simulating phantoms show dramatic spectral distortion which results in emission peak shifts of up to 60 nm in wavelength. Measured spectral shapes are highly dependent on the photon path length and the scattered photon field in the NIR amplifies the wavelength-dependent absorption of the fluorescence spectra. Simulations of the peak propagation using diffusion modeling describe the experimental observations and confirm the path length dependence of fluorescence emission spectra. Spectral changes are largest for long path length measurements and thus will be most important in human tomography studies in the NIR. Spectrally resolved detection strategies are required to detect and interpret these effects which may otherwise produce erroneous intensity measurements. This observed phenomenon is analogous to beam hardening in x-ray tomography, which can lead to image artifacts without appropriate compensation. The peak shift toward longer wavelengths, and therefore lower energy photons, observed for NIR luminescent signals propagating through tissue may readily be described as a beam softening phenomenon.
- Journal of Applied Physics 01/2009; 105(10):1901-101901. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiation treatment of cancer induces an optical Čerenkov emission throughout the treated volume, which could be used to excite molecular reporters in vivo, allowing molecular sensing of tissue response during fractionated therapy. In this Letter, the idea that spatial mapping of this signal can be achieved with tomographic recovery of the fluorophore distribution is tested for the first time using 6 MV photons from a linear accelerator in a heterogeneous tissue phantom. Čerenkov light excited fluorophores throughout the tissue phantom, and diffuse tomography was used to recover images. Measurements from 13 locations were used, with spectrometer detection and spectral fitting, to separate the fluorophore emission from the Čerenkov continuum. Fluorescent diffuse tomographic images showed a linear response between the concentration and the reconstructed values. The potential to apply this molecular imaging in treatment with molecular reporters appears promising.Optics Letters 04/2013; 38(8):1364-6. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of tissue provides quantification of absorbers, scattering and luminescent agents in bulk tissue through the use of measurement data and assumptions. Prior knowledge can be critical about things such as (i) the tissue shape and/or structure, (ii) spectral constituents, (iii) limits on parameters, (iv) demographic or biomarker data, and (v) biophysical models of the temporal signal shapes. A general framework of NIRS imaging with prior information is presented, showing that prior information datasets could be incorporated at any step in the NIRS process, with the general workflow being: (i) data acquisition, (ii) pre-processing, (iii) forward model, (iv) inversion/reconstruction, (v) post-processing, and (vi) interpretation/diagnosis. Most of the development in NIRS has used ad hoc or empirical implementations of prior information such as pre-measured absorber or fluorophore spectra, or tissue shapes as estimated by additional imaging tools. A comprehensive analysis would examine what prior information maximizes the accuracy in recovery and value for medical diagnosis, when implemented at separate stages of the NIRS sequence. Individual applications of prior information can show increases in accuracy or improved ability to estimate biochemical features of tissue, while other approaches may not. Most beneficial inclusion of prior information has been in the inversion/reconstruction process, because it solves the mathematical intractability. However, it is not clear that this is always the most beneficial stage.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 11/2011; 369(1955):4531-57. · 2.89 Impact Factor