Site‐selective chemical‐vapor‐deposition of submicron‐wide conducting polypyrrole films: Morphological investigations with the scanning electron and the atomic force microscope

Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Elettronica, Informatica, Telecomunicazioni, Via Diotisalvi 2, 156126, Pisa (I), Italy
Journal of Applied Physics (Impact Factor: 2.19). 08/1996; 80(1):70 - 75. DOI: 10.1063/1.362772
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT We report morphological investigations of polypyrrole thin films deposited by means of a self‐aligning vapor phase technique onto glass, silicon and silicon dioxide substrates, coated with an oxidizing precursor. The variation of the deposition parameters allows the control of the film microstructure which can be fibrillar and strongly anisotropic or globular and tendentially isotropic. Patterning of the precursor by electron‐beam lithography allows the production of submicron wide lines as shown by both the scanning electron microscope and the atomic force microscope. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.

Download full-text


Available from: Franco Cacialli, Dec 14, 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the fabrication of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) nanostructures by direct scanning near-field lithography of its soluble precursor. The technique is based on the spatially selective inhibition of the precursor solubility by exposure to the ultraviolet optical field present at the apex of scanning near-field fiber probes with aperture diameters between 40 and 80 nm (±5 nm). After development in methanol and thermal conversion under vacuum we obtain features with a minimum dimension of 160 nm. We demonstrate the use of the technique for the direct writing of two-dimensional photonic crystals with intentional defects and a periodicity relevant to applications in the visible range. Using a Bethe–Bouwkamp model, we then discuss the influence of probe size, tip-sample distance, and film thickness on the resolution of the lithographic process. We also discuss limitations to the resolution that can arise from physical properties of the lithographic medium.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2003; 82(4). DOI:10.1063/1.1539278 · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes with highly uniform surface and tunable wall thickness were fabricated by one-step vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template membranes, and transformed into carbon nanotubes through a carbonization process.
    Chemical Communications 05/2004; DOI:10.1039/b316083a · 6.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the application of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to the study of the photophysical and self-organization properties of thin films of blends of conjugated polymers, and also to the lateral nanoscale patterning of conjugated-polymer structures. Such thin-film plastic semiconductor nanostructures offer significant potential for use in opto-electronic devices. The implementation of SNOM we employ is the most established form in which a probe with a sub-wavelength aperture is scanned in close proximity to the sample surface. We consider the nature of the near-field optical distribution, which decays within the first ca. 100 nm of these semiconductor materials, and address the identification of topographic artefacts in near-field optical images. While the topographic information obtained simultaneously with optical data in any SNOM experiment enables an easy comparison with the higher-resolution tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, the spectroscopic contrast provided by fluorescence SNOM gives an unambiguous chemical identification of the different phases in a conjugated-polymer blend. Both fluorescence and photoconductivity SNOM indicate that intermixing of constituent polymers in a blend, or nanoscale phase separation, is responsible for the high efficiency of devices employing these materials as their active layer. We also demonstrate a scheme for nano-optical lithography with SNOM of conjugated-polymer structures, which has been employed successfully for the fabrication of poly(-phenylene vinylene) nanostructures with 160 nm feature sizes.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 05/2004; 362(1817):771-86. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2003.1346 · 2.86 Impact Factor