Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons

Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy
Journal of Applied Physics (Impact Factor: 2.21). 10/2008; DOI: 10.1063/1.2973668
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an 241 A m α particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0×1014 n/ cm 2 . In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

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    ABSTRACT: In this paper a novel on-line tritium monitor is presented. It is made with a single crystal diamond detector (SCD) covered with a thin layer of LiF 95% enriched in <sup>6</sup>Li. Thermal neutrons impinging on the LiF layer produce α and T ions which are detected by the active diamond. The pulse height spectrum shows two separated peaks due to α and T ions respectively. By a proper calibration in a reference thermal flux the number of <sup>6</sup>Li atoms and thus the absolute n+<sup>6</sup>Li→α+T reaction rate per unitary flux can be established. Once calibrated the detector can be used to measure the tritium production. Due to the many outstanding properties of diamond this detector could operate in the harsh working conditions of a fusion breeding blanket. A test of this detector was performed at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The detector was inserted inside a mock-up of the European Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Tritium Blanket Module (TBM), designed to validate the neutronic database for fusion application. The mock-up of the TBM was designed to perform a full set of experiments to validate tritium production code prediction comparing the experimental results with calculations. The measured tritium rates with the Li-Diamond detector are described in this paper. Comparison with calculations is in progress and will be reported in a future paper.
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    ABSTRACT: Several types of diamond layers have been deposited on molybdenum tiles by chemical vapour deposition techniques, and exposed under erosion-dominated conditions in the SOL of TEXTOR in order to assess them as a suitable candidate for plasma-facing material. Post-exposure characterisation of physical properties and surface modification induced by the plasma was performed by SEM imaging, investigation of diamond surface by micro-Raman spectroscopy and deuterium retention measurements by NRA. The analyses evidenced that lightly boron-doped micro-crystalline diamond is performing better than undoped and heavily doped samples, and nano-crystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon, as it showed lower surface modification, lower presence of arcing traces at the surface and lower deuterium retention. High concentration of boron in the layers led to higher retention of deuterium, whereas undoped (insulating) diamond showed increased arcing activity. Nano-crystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon layers generally showed poorer mechanical properties.
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    ABSTRACT: A study on the effect of secondary electron emission, which strongly affects the detection of extreme-UV radiation, was performed on diamond detectors. Two different structures were compared: interdigitated contacts and a transverse Schottky diode configuration. Both devices were electrically characterized by I-V measurements and their responsivity was measured in the extreme UV spectral region (20–120 nm) by using He-Ne gas discharge radiation sources and a toroidal grating vacuum monochromator. Through an ad-hoc measurement configuration, the contributions of the internal photocurrent and of the photoemission current have been analyzed and separately evaluated. The results showed that secondary electron emission, which clearly depends on the experimental conditions (e.g., external electric field, pressure, etc.), is one of the most relevant processes affecting the spectral responsivity in the extreme UV band. In particular, for interdigitated devices, extreme care must be taken in order to obtain an absolute value of their responsivity, while detectors in the transverse configuration can be shielded in such a way to avoid secondary electron current contribution and therefore provide a more correct and reliable response.
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