Error Propagation in Calibration Networks of Synthetic Aperture Radiometers
ABSTRACT During the last two decades, the development of synthetic aperture radiometers for remote sensing has been studied intensively. One of the proposed methods for the calibration of such an instrument is the application of a distributed noise injection network. This paper focuses on the origin and effect of errors arising from this methodology. A generalized analytical method to calculate the accumulation of phase and amplitude errors in a distributed noise injection network is presented. This method is then applied to the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS), the interferometric radiometer aboard the European Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite. The effect of the resulting errors to MIRAS' brightness temperature is analyzed. The presented method is applicable also to other interferometric radiometers, whose calibration relies on distributed noise injection.
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ABSTRACT: End-to-end calibration of the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) radiometer refers to processing the measured raw data up to dual-polarization brightness temperature maps over the earth's surface, which is the level 1 product of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The process starts with a self-correction of comparators offset and quadrature error and is followed by the calibration procedure itself. This one is based on periodically injecting correlated and uncorrelated noise to all receivers in order to measure their relevant parameters, which are then used to correct the raw data. This can deal with most of the errors associated with the receivers but does not correct for antenna errors, which must be included in the image reconstruction algorithm. Relative S-parameters of the noise injection network and of the input switch are needed as additional data, whereas the whole process is independent of the exact value of the noise source power and of the distribution network physical temperature. On the other hand, the approach relies on having at least one very well-calibrated reference receiver, which is implemented as a noise injection radiometer. The result is the calibrated visibility function, which is inverted by the image reconstruction algorithm to get the brightness temperature as a function of the director cosines at the antenna reference plane. The final step is a coordinate rotation to obtain the horizontal and vertical brightness temperature maps over the earth. The procedures presented are validated using a complete SMOS simulator previously developed by the authors.IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 06/2005; · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spatial resolution of current space-borne Earth observation radiometers is limited by the physical antenna aperture. This is especially critical at L-band, which exhibits high sensitivity to soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Interferometric radiometers (InR's) are currently being studied by several space agencies as a feasible alternative to overcome this problem. However, their calibration is a crucial issue since most techniques inherited from radio astronomy cannot be directly applied. Due to the large number of receiving channels, calibration techniques based on centralized noise injection from a single noise source will require a large and stable distribution network, which is technically very complex and unacceptable from the point-of-view of mass and volume. Procedures based on distributed noise injection from a set of noise sources through smaller distribution networks have been recently proposed by the authors as an alternative to alleviate these technological problems. In this paper, the analysis of these networks, the impact of the noise generated by the network losses on the calibration, and the impact of front-end reradiated noise are analyzed. Finally, the optimum circuit topologies and tolerances to which these networks have to be characterized in order to achieve the required calibration are derived. These configurations are formed by cascading basic 1:2 and 1:3 isolated power splitters. Isolators at receiver inputs have to be included in order to minimize offsets originating from the correlation of reradiation of receiver noise. It has been found that, in order to satisfy the calibration requirements of InR's, the S-parameters of the ensemble noise-injection network plus isolators have to be known to within 0.025-0.050 dB in amplitude and 0.5° in phase, and their physical temperature known to within 0.5°CIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 05/2000; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes AMIRAS, an airborne demonstrator of the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis, which is the instrument onboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The main electrical, mechanical, thermal, and control elements of the demonstrator are shown, together with its capabilities and performances as demonstrator of the spaceborne instrument. AMIRAS main tests inside an anechoic chamber, field ground experiments, and its first two maiden flights are reported, and some results of these tests are highlighted. AMIRAS will further be used in some calibration and validation campaigns of the SMOS mission.IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 04/2008; · 3.47 Impact Factor