Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Underactuated Control for Autonomous Dynamic Balance of an Electrical Bicycle
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to stabilize the running motion of an electrical bicycle. In order to do so, two strategies are employed in this paper. One is to control the bike's center of gravity (CG), and the other is to control the angle of the bike's steering handle. As in general, the control of the CG applies a pendulum. An additional factor is the lean angle with respect to the gravitational direction of the bicycle in motion. In this total, the proposed system produces three outputs that will affect the dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle: the bike's pendulum angle, lean angle, and steering angle. Based on the data of input-output, two scaling factors are first employed to normalize the sliding surface and its derivative. According to the concept of the if-then rule, an appropriate rule table for the i th subsystem is obtained. Then, the output scaling factor based on Lyapunov stability is determined. The purpose of using the proposed fuzzy sliding-mode underactuated control (FSMUAC) is to deal with the huge uncertainties of a bicycle system often caused by different ground conditions and gusts of wind. Finally, the simulations for the electrical bicycle in motion under ordinary PID control, modified proportional-derivative control, and FSMUAC are compared to judge the efficiency of our proposed control method.
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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a velocity control approach for the light electric bike with human power assistance. The velocity control signal is composed of two signals. One is a velocity-dependent equilibratory torque to compensate the wind resistance. Another is a deviation torque to achieve desired multi-objective performance represented in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions. The formulated multi-objective performances includes the invariant set of state variable under the magnitude bounded disturbance, the magnitude bound on the regulated output, and the H∞ performance optimization for attenuation of various disturbance effects on the regulated output. The disturbances include the deviations of tire resistance, human assistant torque, and driver's weight from nominal values. Based on the parameters and specifications of the EL-168 electric bike produced by KENTFA Advanced Technology, Taiwan, the design results are verified through time-response simulations under both the flat and linear varying gradient road conditions.WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control 10/2011; 6(10):361-370.
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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a fuzzy control (FC) algorithm for a pendulum-driven cart (PDC) system. The PDC is a mechanism that represents a novel driving concept of ground mobile robot which only employs internal thrust and static friction. The control objective of the system is to drive the cart towards a desired direction by swinging the pendulum only. The proposed FC algorithm is designed based on the closed-loop control algorithm proposed in Yu et al. (2008a). Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. A prototype of the PDC system developed by using the LEGO Mindstorms kit and the ROBOLAB Software is also presented in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the PDC system is realisable, and the proposed FC algorithm is simple and effective.International Journal of Advanced Mechatronic Systems 02/2013; 4(5):260-268. DOI:10.1504/IJAMECHS.2012.052221
Conference Paper: Stabilizing control of an autonomous bicycle[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The problem of self-stabilization of a bicycle has been a research area for more than a century. However, many researchers have confined their study in self stabilization of bicycles at constant velocities. In this paper, we utilized the precession effect of the gyroscope to stabilize the bicycle both at zero forward velocity and varying velocities. Equation of motion of a bicycle with a flywheel mounted on its bottom is derived and a first order observer-based sliding mode controller is designed. The performance of the controller is simulated on different road structures. It is shown that the designed controller succeeded to stabilize the bicycle throughout the trajectory.Control Conference (ASCC), 2013 9th Asian; 01/2013