Conference Paper

The Treatment of Extensive Scalp Lesions Combining Electrons with Intensity-Modulated Photons

Dept. of Med. Phys., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260471 Conference: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT This study was to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of combining electrons with intensity modulated photons (IMRT+e) for patients with extensive scalp lesions. A case of a patient with an extensive scalp lesion, in which the target volume covered the entire front half of the scalp, is presented. This approach incorporated the electron dose into the inverse treatment planning optimization. The resulting doses to the planning target volume (PTV) and relevant critical structures were compared. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), diodes, and GAFCHROMIC EBT films were used to verify the accuracy of the techniques. The IMRT+e plan produced a superior dose distribution to the patient as compared to the IMRT plan in terms of reduction of the dose to the brain with the same dose conformity and homogeneity in the target volumes. This study showed that IMRT+e is a viable treatment modality for extensive scalp lesions patients. It provides a feasible alternative to existing treatment techniques, resulting in improved homogeneity of dose to the PTV compared to conventional electron techniques and a decrease in dose to the brain compared to photon IMRT alone

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate combining unmodulated electron beams with intensity-modulated radiation therapy to improve dose distributions for superficial head and neck cancers, and to compare mixed beam plans with helical tomotherapy. Mixed beam and helical tomotherapy dose plans were developed for two patients with parotid gland tumors and two patients with nasal cavity tumors. Mixed beam plans consisted of various weightings of a enface electron beam and IMRT, which was optimized after calculation of the electron dose to compensate for heterogeneity in the electron dose distribution within the target volume. Helical tomotherapy plans showed dose conformity and homogeneity in the target volume that was equal to or better than the mixed beam plans. Electron-only plans tended to show the lowest doses to normal tissues, but with markedly worse dose conformity and homogeneity than in the other plans. However, adding a 20% IMRT dose fraction (i.e., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to the electron plan restored target conformity and homogeneity to values comparable to helical tomotherapy plans, while maintaining lower normal tissue dose. Mixed beam treatments offer some dosimetric advantages over IMRT or helical tomotherapy for target depths that do not exceed the useful range of the electron beam. Adding a small IMRT component (e.g., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to electron beam plans markedly improved target dose homogeneity and conformity for the cases examined in this study.
    Radiation Oncology 12/2011; 6:178. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This clinical study compared four different cases of extensive scalp malignancies treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The merits of coplanar and non-coplanar Step-and-shoot total scalp irradiation techniques were evaluated against the background of the literature. Four patients (angiosarcoma, n=2, cutaneous B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, B-NHL, n=1, mycosis fungoides, n=1) treated between 2008 and 2012 at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient with executed coplanar plan, a non-coplanar plan and vice versa has been calculated additionally for direct comparison. Three patients underwent limited surgery before radiotherapy. Individual adapted bolus material was used for every patient (helmet). Total scalp dose was 30 Gy (B-NHL, mycosis fungoides) and 50 Gy (angiosarcoma) with fractional doses of 2.0-2.5 Gy (without sequential local boost in three patients). Conformity and homogeneity indexes and dose volume histograms were used for treatment plan comparison. Dose hot spots were higher in coplanar plans (110-128% Dmax). Non-coplanar plans showed a more homogeneous dose distribution (HI = .12 - .17) and superior PTV coverage (88 - 96%). Target dose coverage was 81-117% in non-coplanar and 30-128% in coplanar plans. Coplanar plans yielded a stronger dose gradient across the target (.7-1.6 Gy/mm) compared to non-coplanar plans (.8-1.3 Gy/mm). The most conformal plan was a non-coplanar plan (CI = .7). Mean and maximum brain doses were comparable and showed an almost linear decrease between min. and max. dose. The optic chiasm and brain stem was spared most with non-coplanar plans, mean doses to the lenses ranged between 4 and 8 Gy and were higher in non-coplanar plans as were doses to the optic nerves.Radiotherapy tolerance was acceptable and acute side effects included erythema, scalp pain, alopecia and radiodermatitis which all spontaneously resolved. Two patients accomplished partial response, two patients showed complete response after radiotherapy. Three patients had locally controlled tumors without recurrence until their deaths or at last follow up, one patient had local progression shortly after radiotherapy. Photon-IMRT is an effective and feasible approach to treat extensive scalp malignancies. Non-coplanar beams could increase dose homogeneity and PTV coverage and might reduce doses particularly to the optic chiasm.
    Radiation Oncology 03/2014; 9(1):82. · 2.36 Impact Factor