Conference Paper

Ultrahigh electro-optic coefficient of 170pm/V and low Vπ of 1V at 1.55μm in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators

Univ. of Arizona, Tucson
DOI: 10.1109/CLEO.2007.4453170 Conference: Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007. CLEO 2007. Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


We demonstrated the highest electro-optic (EO) coefficient with the highest poling efficiency (~100%) in actual modulator devices. This breakthrough was accomplished with contact poling of a crosslinkable EO polymer with an electrically conductive sol-gel cladding.

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Available from: David L Mathine, Oct 04, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A simple all-wet-etch process fabricates a hybrid electro-optic-polymer (EOP)/sol–gel waveguide modulator, confining the EOP laterally in the sol–gel overcladding. The structure enables an adiabatic transition between the passive sol–gel waveguides and the active EOP overlayers without lateral radiation. Intensity is confined well in a 0.9-μm-thick EOP overlayer, resulting in a low half-wave voltage (Vπ) due to the larger overlap integral. This lateral confinement technique allowed the reduction of Vπ (at 1550 nm) by a factor of 4. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.
    Applied Physics Letters 12/2003; 83(23):4692-4694. DOI:10.1063/1.1630850 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An intensity modulation using a hybrid electrooptic (EO) polymer/sol-gel straight channel waveguide, useful in the 1550-nm wavelength regime is demonstrated without using Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide. The sol-gel waveguide is selectively buried so that a vertical transition into and out of an EO polymer coated on the sol-gel waveguide is arranged. The throughput ratio for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes of the light coupled out of the hybrid waveguide is improved up to 0.9 dB with the help of reduced birefringence of the EO polymer after corona poling. We show that the fabrication process of such hybrid-type waveguides enables production of a phase modulator operating at 1550-nm wavelength. The fabricated straight channel waveguide modulator exhibits stable- and high-intensity modulation efficiency (82%) using a simple cross-polarization setup after the polarization dependence is reduced. We demonstrate an all wet-etching process to fabricate polymeric EO modulators.
    Journal of Lightwave Technology 10/2003; 21(9):2053- 2060. DOI:10.1109/JLT.2003.816896 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An approach to utilizing electro-optically (EO) active polymers in hybrid waveguide structures is described and demonstrated. Buried sol-gel waveguides provide a robust basis for planar integrated circuitry, suitable for coupling with optical fibers. By selectively exposing the core of a buried channel guide, overcoating with an EO polymer, and using appropriately tapered transition zones, a guided mode can be made to undergo adiabatic transitions from sol-gel waveguide up into the EO polymer and back. Such a single-mode device was constructed. These transitions were proven via modulation of the emerging wave’s polarization ellipse by application of voltage to the EO polymer. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2003; 82(4):490-492. DOI:10.1063/1.1539298 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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