Emissivities of rough surface over layered media in microwave remote sensing of snow
ABSTRACT The rough surfaces in Greenland are exhibited as sastrugi. The roughness heights are less than 8 cm for much of the year except in late winter and spring, when they increase to 25 cm or less. Roughness profiles were also related to snow and firn ventilation. WindSat, launched in January 2003, was the first spaceborne polarimetric radiometer to measure all 4 elements of Stokes vector, viz., the vertical polarized brightness temperatures, the horizontal polarized brightness temperatures, and the real and imaginary part of the cross-correlations of the vertical and horizontal polarizations. It was shown by Tsang (1984, 1990) that azimuthal asymmetry will create nonzero third and fourth Stokes parameter in passive microwave remote sensing. Thus the third and fourth Stokes parameters contain information of the azimuthal structure. Usually the third and fourth Stokes parameters are quite small between 0.5 K to 1 K over land and less than plusmn2.5 K over ocean. However, measurements of third and Stokes parameters over Greenland show surprising values of 10 K for the third Stokes parameter and between -10 K and 20 K for the fourth Stokes parameter. In this paper, we use physically based electromagnetic model to study the passive polarimetric remote sensing of snow in Greenland by consider the scattering and emission from a random rough surface over multi-layered media. We consider the random rough surface varied in only one horizontal direction so that azimuthal asymmetry exists in the 3-D problem. Dyadic Green's functions of multilayered medium (Tsang et al., 2000) is used to formulate the surface integral equation so that the polarization dependence of emission and scattering is accounted for systematically. The surface integral equations are solved by using the method of moments in conjunction with fast numerical algorithms such as the multilevel UV method. Numerical results of brightness temperatures are illustrated for all four Stokes parameters to demonstrate the si-
gnatures of sastrugi in passive microwave remote sensing. To account for the large third and fourth Stokes parameters, we also consider the case of anisotropic scatterers in volume scattering. Full multiple volume scattering are studied with numerical solutions of the radiative transfer equations for non-spherical scatterers with preferred orientation.
Article: Theory of microwave remote sensing[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Active and passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrains is studied. Electromagnetic wave scattering and emission from stratified media and rough surfaces are considered with particular application to the remote sensing of soil moisture. Radiative transfer theory for both the random and discrete scatterer models is examined. Vector radiative transfer equations for nonspherical particles are developed for both active and passive remote sensing. Single and multiple scattering solutions are illustrated with applications to remote sensing problems. Analytical wave theory using the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations is employed to treat scattering by random media. The backscattering enhancement effects, strong permittivity fluctuation theory, and modified radiative transfer equations are addressed. The electromagnetic wave scattering from a dense distribution of discrete scatterers is studied. The effective propagation constants and backscattering coefficients are calculated and illustrated for dense media.02/1985;
- Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1990. IGARSS '90. 'Remote Sensing Science for the Nineties'., 10th Annual International; 06/1990
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ABSTRACT: Multispectral brightness temperature (T<sub>B</sub>) measurements over Greenland are obtained from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), which are flown aboard the DMSP satellites. This paper examines the different spectral characteristics over Greenland throughout the year. Although snow covers the vast majority of Greenland, the southern regions rarely exhibit the spectral characteristics associated with snowcover (i.e., T<sub>B</sub> decreases at higher frequencies). In fact, the SSM/I polarization and frequency measurements over southern Greenland are more indicative of water than a snow-covered surface (i.e., T<sub>B</sub> increases at higher frequencies). A simplified physical model is developed to help explain the anomalous measurements over southern Greenland. Model results indicate that high frequency radiation is mainly scattered by snow grains residing above the subsurface ice layers, whereas low frequency radiation is scattered throughout a much greater depth. Since low frequencies are scattered throughout a greater volume, they are depressed relative to high frequencies, and the typical snowcover signature is absentIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 04/1997; · 3.47 Impact Factor