Conference Paper

Electric bicycle using batteries and supercapacitors

Tech. Univ. Lisbon, Lisbon
DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2007.4417425 Conference: Power Electronics and Applications, 2007 European Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


In this paper, a traction system useful for an autonomous Electric Vehicle of individual use is described. The developed system is constituted in a first approach by two different power sources: one is constituted by batteries or by fuel cells, and the other by supercapacitors. This paper describes a technical solution joining and accomplishing the usage of two energy storage systems in the same traction system. In the developed system, the supercapacitors run as element that store energy temporarily and that can be used to retrieve energy. Starting from the functional characteristics of typical electrical vehicles and characterization of a typical routing profile, the energy consumption is obtained. In order to characterize and design the system, this is described in detail, namely the supercapacitors models, the battery, the power converters and the implemented strategy of control. According to the obtained results, a control strategy that allows an effective management of the stored energy in the system regarding the vehicle's optimal functioning and increasing its autonomy is also presented and discussed. Based on experimental and simulation results, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed solution are presented.

Download full-text


Available from: P. J. Costa Branco,
  • Source
    • "Fig3. Resistance Loads and Traction Force Applied to the E-bike [3] Hybrid energy storage optimal sizing for an ….. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Energy Storage System (ESS) is an expensive component of an E-bike. The idea of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS), a combination between battery and Ultra-Capacitor (UC), can moderate the cost of E-bike ESS. In this paper, a cost function is developed to use for optimal sizing of a HESS. This cost function is consisted of the HESS (battery, UC and DC/DC converter) cost and the cost of battery replacements during 10 years. The battery lifetime and riding pattern limit the life span of ESS. The “Portuguese standard NP EN 1986-1” riding pattern is used in this research. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to solve the optimization problem. The results show that the cost and weight of HESS are clearly better than optimally sized battery ESS.
  • Source
    • "Selecting an appropriate algorithm can improve the effectiveness of the AES system. Although a few UC voltage control designs are presented in the literature [9], [10], [12], [21], we are not aware of any study of the different possible strategies and how they affect system performance. UC voltage control strategies generally cause the state of charge (SoC) of the UC bank to tend towards some goal level. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The energy storage system in electric vehicles (EV) must supply variable power levels and take regenerative power from braking. Ultracapacitors (UC) are more efficient than batteries for variable loads and recharging, but have a much lower energy density; the combination of these into a hybrid source can deliver better performance in an EV. We present several control systems, compare three active control schemes in-depth, and suggest a design. We describe a superior UC voltage control algorithm and a method of choosing optimal system parameters. Simulation validates the control approach of the complete system, and shows performance improvement of 48% by one metric. The test system includes a DC-to-DC converter with 97-98% typical efficiency.
    Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE; 12/2008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The models and number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) circulating in Portugal is not very significant; however, the number of electric vehicles has been slowly increasing and a boom is expected in the coming years. Under this scenario, increasing the number of EVs and fostering the introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) circulating (replacing the vehicles with internal combustion engines) will contribute to increase the electric power consumption. In addition, new technological challenges will be launched, not only related to the charging points but also related to the impact of such systems in the electrical grids. So, this subject can be discussed from different point of views and distinct perspectives being the following topics under analysis in this work: impact of the connection of the electrical vehicles to the low voltage AC grid; technical solutions allowing charging the EV using the domestic AC grid; technical solutions allowing to recover the energy stored on-board; interconnection with alternative energy solutions, mainly the domestic photovoltaic systems. So, in this paper, a HEV with parallel configuration is used having on board the following chains: IC Engine + Generator + Electronic + Batteries; Ultra capacitors + Electronic converter + Batteries; Batteries + Electronic converter + Electric motor; Batteries + Electronic converter + AC grid. In order to study the impact, the benefits and the constraints of such solutions, different scenarios to the number of vehicles with electrical propulsion were traced, based on the number of electrical vehicles sold in Portugal during the past years. On the other hand, it is crucial to forecast the impact of such systems in the production of electric energy and in particular, to analyze the role of renewable energies. With particular interest nowadays, the micro-generation systems can play an important role in order to fulfill the power requirements of the HEVs and providing charging points independent of the AC grids.
Show more