Percutaneous therapeutic approaches to closure of cardiac pseudoaneurysms
Cardiac and aortic pseudoaneurysms are rare complications following myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. They are characterized by a contained cardiac or aortic rupture within surrounding tissue and have a high mortality rate if left untreated. Percutaneous treatment of cardiac pseudoaneurysms might be a feasible treatment option in patients who are at high risk of reoperative surgery. There is limited literature on the outcomes and the approaches to percutaneous treatment of these pseudoaneurysms. We review nine cases of cardiac and aortic pseudoaneurysms and percutaneous techniques for closure. Pseudoaneurysms were categorized anatomically as left ventricular posterior (posterobasal or posterolateral), left ventricular outflow tract, left ventricular apical, and ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms. Two patients with posterior pseudoaneurysms (one posterobasal treated with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device, and one wide-mouthed posterolateral pseudoaneurysm which was not closed, are described. We further describe two left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysms treated successfully with percutaneous coil embolization, one left ventricular apical pseudoaneurysm treated with coils, and three ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms treated with a septal occluder device or vascular plug. We review the technical approaches, device selection strategies, outcomes, and complications with these percutaneous treatment options. The size of the pseudoaneurysm dimensions of its neck and relative anatomy, particularly to the coronaries and valves, are critical issues to be addressed before percutaneous treatment of these pseudoaneurysms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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