Thrombosis is associated with inferior survival in multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT Patients with multiple myeloma are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis. We assessed the impact of venous and arterial thrombosis on survival in a population-based study of 9,399 multiple myeloma patients diagnosed in Sweden from 1987 to 2005. We found multiple myeloma patients with venous thromboembolism to have a higher mortality at 1-, 5-, and 10-years of follow up compared with those without, with hazard ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.5), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.5-1.8), and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4-1.7), respectively. There was an increase in risk of death among multiple myeloma patients with arterial thrombosis, with hazard ratios of 3.4 (95% CI: 3.0-3.8), 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3), and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.9-2.1), respectively. In landmark analyses at six months, early arterial but not venous thromboembolism was associated with a higher risk of death. Thus, in contrast to prior smaller studies, we found the development of thrombosis to be associated with significantly poorer survival. The prevention of thrombosis in multiple myeloma is an important goal in the management of these patients.
Article: Anti-metastatic effect of a non-anticoagulant low-molecular-weight heparin versus the standard low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) exhibit potent anticoagulant efficacy via their plasmatic effects on thrombin and factor Xa. These agents are also effective in releasing endothelial tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the natural inhibitor of tissue factor, and exhibit significant anti-metastatic effects in experimental animal models. However, the potential for bleeding complications has slowed down the more widespread adoption of LMWH therapy in cancer patients. In this study, the effect of a non-anticoagulant form of LMWH (NA-LMWH) on experimental lung metastasis and tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation in vivo was compared to the LMWH enoxaparin. Using the B16 melanoma mouse model of metastasis, subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of NA-LMWH or enoxaparin (10 mg/kg), three hours before intravenous (i.v.) injection of metastatic melanoma cells, followed by daily doses for 14 days, reduced lung tumor formation by 70% (P < 0.001). I.v. injection of tumor cells resulted in a significant (50-62%, P < 0.01) fall in platelet counts. Pre-injection (i.v.) of enoxaparin completely abolished the tumor cell-induced thrombocytopenia, whereas NA-LMWH had no effect. Four hours after a single s.c. dose, enoxaparin but not NA-LMWH prolonged the clotting time three-fold and delayed the time to clot initiation more than 10-fold as measured by a Sonoclot analyzer and by thromboelastography, respectively. Enoxaparin but not NA-LMWH demonstrated a significant anticoagulant effect in mice. Both NA-LMWH and enoxaparin caused similar TFPI release from endothelial cells in vitro. These data provide evidence to support the potential of NA-LMWH as an anti-metastatic agent without any significant impact on coagulation.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2006; 96(6):816-21. · 5.04 Impact Factor