Risk factors for pressure ulcer development in critically Ill patients: a conceptual model to guide research.
ABSTRACT This paper presents a proposed conceptual model to guide research on pressure ulcer risk in critically ill patients, who are at high risk for pressure ulcer development. However, no conceptual model exists that guides risk assessment in this population. Results from a review of prospective studies were evaluated for design quality and level of statistical reporting. Multivariate findings from studies having high or medium design quality by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence standards were conceptually grouped. The conceptual groupings were integrated into Braden and Bergstrom's (Braden and Bergstrom  Rehabilitation Nursing, 12, 8-12, 16) conceptual model, retaining their original constructs and augmenting their concept of intrinsic factors for tissue tolerance. The model could enhance consistency in research on pressure ulcer risk factors.