Risk factors for pressure ulcer development in critically Ill patients: a conceptual model to guide research.
ABSTRACT This paper presents a proposed conceptual model to guide research on pressure ulcer risk in critically ill patients, who are at high risk for pressure ulcer development. However, no conceptual model exists that guides risk assessment in this population. Results from a review of prospective studies were evaluated for design quality and level of statistical reporting. Multivariate findings from studies having high or medium design quality by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence standards were conceptually grouped. The conceptual groupings were integrated into Braden and Bergstrom's (Braden and Bergstrom  Rehabilitation Nursing, 12, 8-12, 16) conceptual model, retaining their original constructs and augmenting their concept of intrinsic factors for tissue tolerance. The model could enhance consistency in research on pressure ulcer risk factors.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Decubitus ulcers confer significant morbidity to critically ill patients. We sought to determine which patient factors contributed to the formation of decubitus ulcers in our critically ill patients, and hypothesized that these ulcers occurred most often in elderly patients with lengths of stay >7 days and high severity of illness. This study was conducted prospectively in two phases. Phase I provided an initial analysis of patients who developed decubitus ulcers in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of New York Weill Cornell Center from January 1, 1993, to June 1, 1997. In phase II of the study, a comparison study was made for patients with ICU length of stay (ULOS) >7 days admitted to the same ICU from January 1, 1998, to August 31, 1998. Age, APACHE III score, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS score), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score, admission status, days without nutrition, ULOS, mortality, days to formation of decubitus ulcers, Cornell ulcer risk score, and other demographic features were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were performed to analyze independent risk factors for development of decubitus ulcers; p <.05. In phase I, 2,615 patients were admitted to surgical ICU over the study period. One hundred and one decubitus ulcers occurred (incidence 3.8%) during phase I, but the incidence of decubitus ulcers increased significantly over time to 9% (p <.01). Thirty-three decubitus ulcers occurred among the 412 patients (incidence 8.0%) during phase II. Multivariate analysis revealed that emergent admission (odds ratio [OR] 36.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] CI 0.2290-0.7694), age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.0026-0.0131), days in bed (OR 1.05, 95% CI -0.0013-0.0156, and days without nutrition (OR 0.51, 95% CI -0.1095--0.0334) were independent predictors of a decubitus ulcer. The incidence of decubitus ulcers is increasing in critically ill patients. Emergency ICU admission and ULOS >7 days in elderly patients confer significant risk for the formation of decubitus ulcers. Specific interventions targeting this high-risk population that may be instituted to decrease the incidence of decubitus ulcers include early nutrition, early mobilization, and possibly less noxious bedding surfaces.Critical Care Medicine 09/2001; 29(9):1678-82. · 6.12 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in varied populations, and whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race) and primary diagnosis are factors in pressure ulcer development when the level of risk for developing ulcers is considered. To determine if there is a difference in the type of preventive services prescribed for persons who do or do not develop pressure ulcers when risk is controlled and whether differences can be related to demographic characteristics. Cohort study. Two skilled nursing homes, two university operated tertiary care hospitals, and two Veteran's Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs) in Omaha, NE, Durham, NC, and Chicago, IL. A total of 843 randomly selected patients more than 19 years of age who did not have pressure ulcers on admission to their place of care. Subjects were 63% male, 79% white, and had a mean age of 63 (+/- 16) years. A head-to-toe skin assessment for pressure ulcers recording site and stage of ulcers, scores for the Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk, demographic characteristics (age, sex, race), and primary diagnosis and preventive interventions (turning or repositioning orders and pressure reduction surface) were documented on the patient record. Observations were made every 48 to 72 hours for a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 4 weeks. Presence/absence and stage of pressure ulcers. One hundred eight of 843 (12.8%) subjects developed pressure ulcers. The incidence was 8.5%, 7.4%, and 23.9% in tertiary care, VAMCs, and nursing homes, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated that lower Braden Scale scores, older age and white race predicted pressure ulcers; gender was not predictive. Primary diagnoses were not significant predictors of pressure ulcer risk when the Braden Scale score was entered into the regression. Prescription of turning was predicted by Braden Scale scores and by white race, whereas prescription of pressure reduction was predicted by Braden Scale scores, white race, and female sex. Risk assessment, rather than diagnoses or demographic characteristics, is recommended as the basis for prescriptive decisions. Risk assessment should cue health care providers to make more judicious use of turning and support surfaces to prevent pressure ulcers. Persons who are at risk for pressure ulcers should have turning and pressure reduction surfaces consistently prescribed and implemented. The costs and goals of preventive prescription for those not at risk for pressure ulcers should be considered.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 02/1996; 44(1):22-30. · 3.98 Impact Factor
- Decubitus 09/1988; 1(3):24-30.