Update on the immunological pathway of negative regulation in acute insults and sepsis.
ABSTRACT Sepsis with subsequent multiple organ dysfunction is a distinctly systemic inflammatory response to concealed or known infection and is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. In the initial stage of sepsis, a phase of immune activation can be evident, but a marked apoptosis-induced depletion of lymphocytes and a nonspecific anergy of immune function after severe trauma and burns might be responsible for the increased susceptibility of the host to subsequent septic complications. Recent studies indicated that negative regulation of immune function plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and regulation of immune responses; therefore, an understanding of the basic pathways might give rise to novel insights into the mechanisms of sepsis and immune homeostasis. This review is an attempt to provide a summary of the different pathways of negative regulation that are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, secondary to acute insults.