In recent years, the importance of interconnects on top-down engineered lithography-based electronic chips has outrun the importance of transistors as a dominant factor of performance. The major challenges in traditional chips are related to delays of non-scalable global interconnects and reliability in general, which leads to the observation that simple scaling will no longer satisfy performance requirements as feature sizes continue to shrink. In addition, the advent of massive-scale multicore architectures, novel silicon and non-silicon manufacturing techniques (such as self-assembly), and an increasing interest in biological components for computing force us to rethink, re-evaluate, and re-design the communication infrastructure and the communication paradigms in the era of nano- and biotechnology. In this paper we present three showcase applications at the forefront of research of bio and nano communication networks. We focus on (1) the signaling and reliability in synthetic bio-circuits, (2) the pattern formation in distributed synthetic bio-networks, and on unstructured nanowire NOC (3). We provide an interdisciplinary and holistic view of such novel communication systems and highlight future challenges and promises.
"These solutions are now being used to investigate molecular communication nanonetworks using molecular arrays  and body area nanonetworks . However, developing molecular communication nanonetworks between nanomachines poses a number of challenges , . First and foremost, molecular communication between the devices is highly unreliable and suffers from long delay. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular communication is a new communication paradigm that allows nanomachines to communicate using biological mechanisms and/or components to transfer information (e.g., molecular diffusion, molecular motors). One possible approach for molecular communication is through the use of virus particles that act as carriers for nucleic acid-based information. This paper analyzes multihop molecular nanonetworks that utilize virus particles as information carrier. The analysis examines the physiochemical and biological characteristics of virus particles such as diffusion, absorption, and decay, and how they affect the reliability of multihop communication in molecular nanonetworks. The paper also analyzes the use of a simple implicit acknowledgement protocol for a single-path topology, and compare its performance to defined and random multipath topologies that do not use acknowledgments. Numerical results show that commensurate reliability is achievable for single-path with implicit acknowledgement and multipath topologies. However, the single-path topology exhibits increased communication delay and more uncertain end-to-end communication time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic biology is a newly emerged research discipline that focuses on the engineering of novel cellular behaviors and functionalities through the creation of artificial gene circuits. One important class of synthetic circuits currently under active development concerns the programming of bacterial cellular communication and collective population-scale behaviors. Because of the ubiquity of cell-cell interactions within bacterial communities, having an ability of engineering these circuits is vital to programming robust cellular behaviors. Here, we highlight recent advances in communication-based synthetic gene circuits by first discussing natural communication systems and then surveying various functional engineered circuits, including those for population density control, temporal synchronization, spatial organization, and ecosystem formation. We conclude by summarizing recent advances, outlining existing challenges, and discussing potential applications and future opportunities.
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