Filtering Data Based on Human-Inspired Forgetting
ABSTRACT Robots are frequently presented with vast arrays of diverse data. Unfortunately, perfect memory and recall provides a mixed blessing. While flawless recollection of episodic data allows increased reasoning, photographic memory can hinder a robot's ability to operate in real-time dynamic environments. Human-inspired forgetting methods may enable robotic systems to rid themselves of out-dated, irrelevant, and erroneous data. This paper presents the use of human-inspired forgetting to act as a filter, removing unnecessary, erroneous, and out-of-date information. The novel ActSimple forgetting algorithm has been developed specifically to provide effective forgetting capabilities to robotic systems. This paper presents the ActSimple algorithm and how it was optimized and tested in a WiFi signal strength estimation task. The results generated by real-world testing suggest that human-inspired forgetting is an effective means of improving the ability of mobile robots to move and operate within complex and dynamic environments.
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ABSTRACT: Functional decay theory proposes that decay and interference, historically viewed as competing accounts of forgetting, are instead functionally related. The theory posits that (a) when an attribute must be updated frequently in memory, its current value decays to prevent interference with later values, and (b) the decay rate adapts to the rate of memory updates. Behavioral predictions of the theory were tested in a task-switching paradigm in which memory for the current task had to be updated every few seconds, hundreds of times. Reaction times and error rates both increased gradually between updates, reflecting decay of memory for the current task. This performance decline was slower when updates were less frequent, reflecting a decrease in the decay rate following a decrease in the update rate. A candidate mechanism for controlled decay is proposed, the data are reconciled with practice effects, and implications for models of executive control are discussed.Psychological Science 02/2002; 13(1):27-33. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Time-based theories expect memory performance to decline as the delay between study and recall of an item increases. The assumption of time-based forgetting, central to many models of serial recall, underpins their key behaviors. Here we compare the predictions of time-based and event-based models by simulation and test them in two experiments using a novel manipulation of the delay between study and retrieval. Participants were trained, via corrective feedback, to recall at different speeds, thus varying total recall time from 6 to 10 sec. In the first experiment, participants used the keyboard to enter their responses but had to repeat a word (called the suppressor) aloud during recall to prevent rehearsal. In the second experiment, articulation was again required, but recall was verbal and was paced by the number of repetitions of the suppressor in between retrieval of items. In both experiments, serial position curves for all retrieval speeds overlapped, and output time had little or no effect. Comparative evaluation of a time-based and an event-based model confirmed that these results present a particular challenge to time-based approaches. We conclude that output interference, rather than output time, is critical in serial recall.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11/2004; 11(5):771-90. · 2.61 Impact Factor
Article: A temporal ratio model of memory.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies 4 main claims: (a) temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; (b) scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; (c) local distinctiveness--performance on a range of memory tasks is determined by interference from near psychological neighbors; and (d) interference-based forgetting--all memory loss is due to interference and not trace decay. The model is applied to data on free recall and serial recall. The account emphasizes qualitative similarity in the retrieval principles involved in memory performance at all timescales, contrary to models that emphasize distinctions between short-term and long-term memory.Psychological Review 08/2007; 114(3):539-76. · 9.80 Impact Factor