Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: 5.9-GHz Field Trials

Cohda Wireless Pty. Ltd., Adelaide, SA, Australia
Proceedings of the IEEE (Impact Factor: 5.47). 08/2011; 99(7):1213 - 1235. DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2011.2105230
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT The mobile outdoor radio environment is challenging for vehicular communications. Although multipath propagation offers diversity and benefits in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions, simultaneous multipath and mobility results in a doubly-selective fading channel. In practice, this means that the channel parameters vary significantly in both time and frequency within the bandwidth and typical packet durations used in 802.11p/WAVE standards for short-range vehicular communications. This paper presents the results of extensive field trial campaigns conducted in several countries, totaling over 1100 km. These field trials are scenario based, focusing on challenging low-latency, high-reliability vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety applications including intersection collision warning, turn across path, emergency electronic brake light, do not pass warning, and precrash sensing. Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) applications are also considered. The field trials compared the performance of off-the-shelf WiFi-based radio equipment with a more advanced 802.11p compliant radio employing more sophisticated channel estimation and tracking. Field trial results demonstrate significantly improved performance using the advanced radio, translating into greatly increased driver warning times and stopping distances. In fact the results show that off-the-shelf WiFi equipment fails to provide sufficient stopping distance to avert accidents in some cases. During the field trials, channel sounding data were also captured. Analysis of these channel measurements reveals the critical importance of accurate channel estimation, tracking the channel in both time and frequency within each packet. Delay spread and Doppler spread statistics computed from the channel measurements validate previously reported results in the literature. The results in this paper, however, provide the first instance of channel measurements performed simultaneously to application performance evaluation. The objective is to-
firmly establish the link between radio channel characteristics and the performance of critical V2V safety applications.

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    • "A similar study was reported in our previous work [6], where we concentrated on the evaluation of the impact of vegetation on V2V communication through a 5.9 GHz measurement campaign conducted at intersections with different types of vegetation. In [7], results for 35 field trial data sets collected in Australia, Austria, Germany, Italy, and the United States, covering over 1100 km on the road in a wide variety of physical environments were presented. The performance of commercial off-the-shelf radio wireless card compared with a more advanced 802.11p compliant radio was also presented. "
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    DESCRIPTION: IEEE ICC 2015 - Workshop on Dependable Vehicular Communications (DVC)
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    • "The algorithm presented in the literature of the IEEE [8], get the critical distance by converting the reaction time of the driver and the vehicle braking to distances, resulting í±‘ [í±š] = í±‡ í±£ + ,í±£ + ,í±£ , (6) where T R is the reaction time of the driver. NHTSA algorithm is also based on kinematic analysis, including information of current vehicle acceleration, that results a consistent equations present in [9] "
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    ABSTRACT: Road accidents are problems of great importance to all humanity. The objective is to develop a system, through WAVE communication, V2X, which act so as to alert the driver of collisions risk, implementing algorithms that uses data received by a GPS system. Highlighting three scenarios: crossing or intersection; sudden approach to the vehicle ahead and road curves. Results show that it is possible to avoid road accidents, obtaining the indication of a collision risk with crossing vehicle 15 meters before interception.
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    • "Also some field trials have been recently presented: V2R communication is tested in [13] to assess the value of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required to obtain a target error probability; the packet error rate (PER) is measured for V2V platooning applications in [14]. Other V2V and V2R field trials, conducted in a large variety of environments in Australia, United States, and Europe, are discussed in [15]. All these works refer to single-hop scenarios, whereas there is still very little on measurements performed with multihop communications, which instead represents a crucial step for short range communication among vehicles in urban and extra urban environments. "
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    ABSTRACT: Using vehicles as sensors for traffic and environment monitoring is a new paradigm that opens the way to worthwhile applications. Data collected on board are usually delivered through the cellular network, with the consequent overloading risk. This paper focuses on the alternative adoption of short range vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-roadside (V2R) communications, with particular reference to the wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE)/IEEE802.11p technology. Specifically, we propose and validate, through simulations in a urban scenario, a simple but effective routing algorithm to forward data through V2V and V2R communications. The benefits are quantified in terms of the amount of data that can be transmitted without using cellular resources. Furthermore, we present an urban field trial, deployed to test our proposed multi-hop algorithm, through the adoption of low cost hardware and open source software.
    Communications Workshops (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, Budapest HU; 06/2013
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