Developing a Real-Time Track Display That Operators Do Not Hate
ABSTRACT We formulate a method of estimating target states that minimizes the mean optimal subpattern assignment (MOSPA) metric, applied suboptimally to a multi-hypothesis tracker (MHT) and optimally to a particle filter. This gives the operator a display of the targets with reduced jitter and track switching.
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Article: Advanced target tracking techniques[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In many engineering applications, including surveillance, guidance, or navigation, single stand-alone sen-sors or sensor networks are used for collecting information on time varying quantities of interest, such as kinematical characteristics and measured attributes of moving or stationary objects of interest (e.g. maneu-vering air targets, ground moving vehicles, or stationary movers such as a rotating antennas). More strictly speaking, in these applications the state vectors of stochastically moving objects are to be estimated from a series of sensor data sets, also called scans or data frames. The individual measurements are produced by the sensors at discrete instants of time, being referred to as scan or frame time, target revisit time, or data innovation time. These output data (sensor reports, observations, returns, hits, plots) typically result from complex estimation procedures themselves characterizing particular waveform parameters of the received sensor signals (signal processing). In case of moving point-source objects or small extended objects, i.e. typical radar targets, often rela-tively simple statistical models can be derived from basic physical laws describing their temporal behavior and thus defining the underlying dynamical system. In addition, appropriate sensor models are available or can be constructed, which characterize the statistical properties of the produced sensor data sufficiently correct. As an introduction to advanced target tracking techniques characteristic problems occurring in typical radar applications are presented; key ideas relevant for their solution are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Most area-defense formulations follow from the assumption that threats must first be identified and then neutralized. This is reasonable, but inherent to it is a process of labeling: threat A must be identified and then threat B, and then action must be taken. This manuscript begins from the assumption that such labeling (A & B) is irrelevant. The problem naturally devolves to one of Random Finite Set (RFS) estimation: we show that by eschewing any concern of target label we relax the estimation procedure, and it is perhaps not surprising that by such a removal of constraint (of labeling) performance (in terms of localization) is enhanced. A suitable measure for the estimation of unla-beled objects is the Mean OSPA (MOSPA). We derive a general algorithm which provided the optimal estimator which minimize the MOSPA. We call such an estimator a Minimum MOSPA (MMOSPA) estimator.Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010 13th Conference on; 08/2010
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ABSTRACT: An algorithm for tracking multiple targets in a cluttered enviroment is developed. The algorithm is capable of initiating tracks, accounting for false or missing reports, and processing sets of dependent reports. As each measurement is received, probabilities are calculated for the hypotheses that the measurement came from previously known targets in a target file, or from a new target, or that the measurement is false. Target states are estimated from each such data-association hypothesis using a Kalman filter. As more measurements are received, the probabilities of joint hypotheses are calculated recursively using all available information such as density of unknown targets, density of false targets, probability of detection, and location uncertainty. This branching technique allows correlation of a measurement with its source based on subsequent, as well as previous, data. To keep the number of hypotheses reasonable, unlikely hypotheses are eliminated and hypotheses with similar target estimates are combined. To minimize computational requirements, the entire set of targets and measurements is divided into clusters that are solved independently. In an illustrative example of aircraft tracking, the algorithm successfully tracks targets over a wide range of conditions.IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 01/1980; 24(6-24):843 - 854. DOI:10.1109/TAC.1979.1102177 · 3.17 Impact Factor