Conference Paper

InterMR: Inter-MANET routing in heterogeneous MANETs

Dept. of Comput. Sci., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
DOI: 10.1109/MASS.2010.5663948 Conference: Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


The advancements of diverse radio technologies and emerging applications have spawned increasing heterogeneity in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). But the collaborative nature of communications and operations often requires that these heterogeneous MANETs to be interoperable. Nonetheless, the existing interconnection protocols designed for the Internet (namely inter-domain routing protocol such as BGP) are not adequate for handling the unique challenges in MANETs. In this paper, we present a novel Inter-MANET Routing protocol called InterMR that can handle the heterogeneity and dynamics of MANETs. Our first contribution is an Inter-MANET address scheme based on a variety of node attributes (e.g., symbolic name, property, etc.); this allows dynamic merging/split of network topologies without a separate Name Server. Our second contribution is to provide a seamless routing mechanism across heterogeneous MANETs without modifying the internal routing mechanisms in each MANET. The proposed scheme can transparently adapt to topological changes due to node mobility in MANETs by dynamically assigning the gateway functionalities. We show, by packet-level simulation, that the performance of InterMR can be improved by up to 112% by adaptive gateway assignment functionalities. We also show that InterMR is scalable with only modest overhead by analysis.

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    • "Given the broad range of applications in Intelligent Transportation, Emergency Operations, Public Safety, among others [3], [4] the benefits of proposing a solution to the problem is of high importance. This high interest in routing protocol interoperability [5] comes with its inherent challenges, which are described at the work of Lee et al. [6]. First, Rapid topology changes, which can happen depending on the mobility pattern and speed of the nodes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless ad hoc networks have become increasingly popular due to the numerous applications they can provide, spawning dozens of routing protocols, in order to cope with the demand. To name a few examples, there are Wireless Mesh Networks, Vehicular Networks and Mobile Ad hoc Networks. This work focuses on the interoperabil-ity for wireless ad hoc routing protocols. Interoperability works in such a way that two or more distinct networks, can relay messages to a neighbour network, even if they are running different routing protocols. Our proposal focuses on a proactive approach for the Strip Interoper-ability mechanism, which has proven to bridge heterogeneous networks using only layer 3 protocols. Moreover, a comparison is performed with the previous mechanism through a Case Study, which delivers an improvement over network metrics. The testbed runs on Ubuntu Linux and wireless ad hoc routing protocols implementations of OLSR and BMX6, both using IPv6 and related protocols.
    IEEE Latincom 2015; 11/2015
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    • "Lee et al. provide some insightful work for interoperability [11] proposing a new routing protocol (InterMR) that uses some notions of the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). InterMr separates inter and intra domain routing as of Chandrashekar et al. [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless Ad hoc Networks are rapidly growing in popularity because of their flexibility and wide range of applications (Indoor Communications, Intelligent Trans- portation, Emergency Operations, Public Safety, etc.). However, while it becomes easier to set up such net- works, one of the main constraints is the heterogeneity of the nearby devices (or nodes). Moreover, it is still very difficult to make them communicate if these nodes use different routing protocols. In this paper, we present a novel approach that makes use of layer 3 protocols to guarantee interoperability between networks. We introduce the notion of Strip Interoperability, a new mechanism that aims to address this problem by creating a bridge between heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks. An implementation of our approach through a real case study is shown to illustrate the applicability of our mechanism.
    The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (IEEE NCA14), Cambridge, MA, USA; 08/2014
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    • "In this section, we overview an inter-MANET routing protocol (InterMR) discussed in [8]. In the protocol framework, there are two types of nodes: gateways and non-gateways. "
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    ABSTRACT: In tactical scenarios, different organizations form their own networks and use different protocols based on their specific objectives. This increases network diversity and makes interoperation more intricate. However, the interoperability of multiple tactical MANETs is an important issue when the MANETs are engaged in a common mission. In order to handle the diversity and interconnect different protocols we leverage a special type of node called gateway. The Gateway translates protocols and formats. It bridges any technology gaps and transparently interconnects multiple MANETs. Only a subset of the nodes qualifies for the Gateway role. Yet, it is not cost-effective to use them all simultaneously as gateways because they would generate excessive network overhead and might deplete the already scarce wireless network resources. If we pre-assign a subset of nodes as gateways, we may not be able to handle mobile topology changes. Moreover, we may not be able to satisfy in a cost-effective manner the evolving requirements of the mission. Thus, we need to dynamically elect gateways as network topology and mission requirements change. To this end, the election must be aware of the policy requirements of MANETs and mission. In this paper, we design and implement an election algorithm that can account for various metrics (e.g., network connectivity, energy balancing, secure routing, etc.). Simulation results show that the tuning of the election algorithm parameters plays an important role in the performance under a specific metric.
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