Conference Paper

Large-scale terrain modeling from multiple sensors with dependent Gaussian processes

Australian Centre for Field Robot., Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2010.5650769 Conference: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT Terrain modeling remains a challenging yet key component for the deployment of ground robots to the field. The difficulty arrives from the variability of terrain shapes, sparseness of the data, and high degree uncertainty often encountered in large, unstructured environments. This paper presents significant advances to data fusion for stochastic processes modeling spatial data, demonstrated in large-scale terrain modeling tasks. We explore dependent Gaussian processes to provide a multi-resolution representation of space and associated uncertainties, while integrating sensors from different modalities. Experiments performed on multiple multi-modal datasets (3D laser scans and GPS) demonstrate the approach for terrains of about 5 km2.

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    • "The GP data fusion problem was cast as a conditional estimation using several Dependent GP's. The formalism could also be used to simultaneously model multiple aspects of the terrain as demonstrated in [15]. The proposed DGP based on the nonstationary (neural-network) kernel performed significantly better than the stationary squared exponential kernel based DGP ([15]) in fusing multiple terrain data sets. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obtaining a comprehensive model of large and complex terrain typically entails the use of both multiple sensory modalities and multiple data sets. This paper demonstrates the use of dependent Gaussian processes for data fusion in the context of large scale terrain modeling. Specifically, this paper derives and demonstrates the use of a non-stationary kernel (Neural Network) in this context. Experiments performed on multiple large scale (spanning about 5 sq km) 3D terrain data sets obtained from multiple sensory modalities (GPS surveys and laser scans) demonstrate the approach to data fusion and provide a preliminary demonstration of the superior modeling capability of Gaussian processes based on this kernel.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates heterogeneous information fusion using multi-task Gaussian processes in the context of geological resource modeling. Specifically, it empirically demonstrates that information integration across heterogeneous information sources leads to superior estimates of all the quantities being modeled, compared to modeling them individually. Multi-task Gaussian processes provide a powerful approach for simultaneous modeling of multiple quantities of interest while taking correlations between these quantities into consideration. Experiments are performed on large scale real sensor data.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of fusing multiple sets of heterogeneous sensor data using Gaussian processes (GPs). Experiments on large scale terrain modeling in mining automation are presented. Three techniques in increasing order of model complexity are discussed. The first is based on adding data to an existing GP model. The second approach treats data from different sources as different noisy samples of a common underlying terrain and fusion is performed using heteroscedastic GPs. The final approach, based on dependent GPs, models each data set by a separate GP and learns spatial correlations between data sets through auto and cross covariances. The paper presents a unifying view of approaches to data fusion using GPs, a statistical evaluation that compares these approaches and multiple previously untested variants of them and an insight into the effect of model complexity on data fusion. Experiments suggest that in situations where data being fused is not rich enough to require a complex GP data fusion model or when computational resources are limited, the use of simpler GP data fusion techniques, which are constrained versions of the more generic models, reduces optimization complexity and consequently can enable superior learning of hyperparameters, resulting in a performance gain.
    Robotics and Autonomous Systems 12/2012; 60(12):1528–1544. DOI:10.1016/j.robot.2012.08.006 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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