Conference Paper

A hexapod walks over irregular terrain using a controller adapted from an insect's nervous system

Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci. Dept., Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH, USA
DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2010.5650200 Conference: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


Insects have long been a source of inspiration for the design and implementation of legged robots. Their extraordinary mobility, agility, and adaptability are features sought after when developing competent, useful mobile walkers. Externally witnessed behaviors have been successfully implemented in walking robots for decades with great success. More recent years of biological study have solved some of the mysteries surrounding the actual neurobiological methods for mobilizing these legged wonders. This paper describes the first implementation of these neurobiological mechanisms in a physical hexapod robot that is capable of generating adaptive stepping actions with the same underlying control method as an insect.

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    • "Similar to Still's CPG design, with its lack of proprioceptive feedback, it does well on a plain terrain while probably is incapable of dealing with more challenging locomotion tasks. The existence of a joint-driving CPG with coupled sensory information and adaptation has been identified in biology [26], which is simulated with modern computer techniques [27] and demonstrated in software for physical single-leg and two-legged systems [28] and in a robotic hexapod [29]. It is clear that the timing of the state change of a joint-driving CPG is controlled by both the central nervous system (CNS) commands and the position and load sensors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Animals such as stick insects can adaptively walk on complex terrains by dynamically adjusting their stepping motion patterns. Inspired by the coupled Matsuoka and resonate-and-fire neuron models, we present a nonlinear oscillation model as the neuromorphic central pattern generator (CPG) for rhythmic stepping pattern generation. This dynamic model can also be used to actuate the motoneurons on a leg joint with adjustable driving frequencies and duty cycles by changing a few of the model parameters while operating such that different stepping patterns can be generated. A novel mixed-signal integrated circuit design of this dynamic model is subsequently implemented, which, although simplified, shares the equivalent output performance in terms of the adjustable frequency and duty cycle. Three identical CPG models being used to drive three joints can make an arthropod leg of three degrees of freedom. With appropriate initial circuit parameter settings, and thus suitable phase lags among joints, the leg is expected to walk on a complex terrain with adaptive steps. The adaptation is associated with the circuit parameters mediated both by the higher level nervous system and the lower level sensory signals. The model is realized using a 0.3-${\mu}{\rm m}$ complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process and the results are reported.
    IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems 03/2012; 23(3):373-384. DOI:10.1109/TNNLS.2011.2177859 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Robot builders have often used insects as a source of inspiration when designing their mechanical systems, due to their ability to easily navigate uneven terrain, overcome or avoid obstacles, and adjust gaits based on traveling speed. Robotics has borrowed from nature with varying degrees of abstraction, from physical appearance to observed behaviours. This paper describes the design and construction of a robotic hexapod based on the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Physically, it is an 18.8:1 scale representation of the insect with 3-DoF legs. The to-scale design was chosen to provide similar physical attributes, such as joint and leg locations, sizes, and ranges-of-motion, which will allow more meaningful comparisons between robot performance and actual insect movements (as opposed to arbitrary hexapod designs). A custom-designed leg control board is responsible for deciding leg joint movements based on a model of the neurobiological systems identified in the insect. A distributed network of six boards will be used to control the legs based on internal parameters that can be modulated by descending commands or adaptively altered by ascending sensory signals when interacting with the environment. Our final aim in this work is to add a vision system to create depth maps, which will be used as an input to a learning system, coupled with the mechanical sensory system, such that terrain that triggers reflex actions can be associated with visual cues in order to predictively avoid obstacles and potholes.
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    ABSTRACT: Biological inspiration has long been pursued as a key to more efficient, agile and elegant control in robotics. It has been a successful strategy in the design and control of robots with both biologically abstracted and biomimetic designs. Behavioral studies have resulted in a good understanding of the mechanics of certain animals. However, without a better understanding of their nervous systems, the biologically-inspired observation-based approach was limited. The findings of Hess and Büschges, and Ekeberg et al. describing the neural mechanisms of stick insect intra-leg joint coordination have made it possible to control models of insect legs with a network of neural pathways they found in the animal's thoracic ganglia. Our work with this model, further informed by cockroach neurobiological studies performed in the Ritzmann lab, has led to LegConNet (Leg Controller Network). In this paper we show that LegConNet controls the forward stepping motion of a robotic leg. With hypothesized additional pathways, some later confirmed by neurobiology, it can smoothly transition the leg from forward stepping to turning movements. We hypothesize that commands descending from a higher center in the nervous system inhibit or excite appropriate local neural pathways and change thresholds, which, in turn, create a cascade of reflexes resulting in behavioral transitions.
    2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, September 25-30, 2011; 09/2011
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