Ambulatory Estimation of Knee-Joint Kinematics in Anatomical Coordinate System Using Accelerometers and Magnetometers
ABSTRACT Knee-joint kinematics analysis using an optimal sensor set and a reliable algorithm would be useful in the gait analysis. An original approach for ambulatory estimation of knee-joint angles in anatomical coordinate system is presented, which is composed of a physical-sensor-difference-based algorithm and virtual-sensor-difference-based algorithm. To test the approach, a wearable monitoring system composed of accelerometers and magnetometers was developed and evaluated on lower limb. The flexion/extension (f/e), abduction/adduction (a/a), and inversion/extension (i/e) rotation angles of the knee joint in the anatomical joint coordinate system were estimated. In this method, since there is no integration of angular acceleration or angular velocity, the result is not distorted by offset and drift. The three knee-joint angles within the anatomical coordinate system are independent of the orders, which must be considered when Euler angles are used. Besides, since there are no physical sensors implanted in the knee joint based on the virtual-sensor-difference-based algorithm, it is feasible to analyze knee-joint kinematics with less numbers and types of sensors than those mentioned in some others methods. Compared with results from the reference system, the developed wearable sensor system is available to do gait analysis with fewer sensors and high degree of accuracy.
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ABSTRACT: A summary of the indications for new systems of measurement is given, with particular reference to the advantages and potential hazards in the use of accelerometers. A study of the movement of the shank, or lower leg, using accelerometers is reported. The paper concludes that improved transducers will allow this method to be extended to the study of the movement of other parts of the body. An Appendix shows how the signals from six accelerometers may be used to define completely the movement of a body in space.Journal of Biomechanics 12/1973; 6(6):729-36. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional measurement of joint motion is a promising tool for clinical evaluation and therapeutic treatment comparisons. Although many devices exist for joints kinematics assessment, there is a need for a system that could be used in routine practice. Such a system should be accurate, ambulatory, and easy to use. The combination of gyroscopes and accelerometers (i.e., inertial measurement unit) has proven to be suitable for unrestrained measurement of orientation during a short period of time (i.e., few minutes). However, due to their inability to detect horizontal reference, inertial-based systems generally fail to measure differential orientation, a prerequisite for computing the three-dimentional knee joint angle recommended by the Internal Society of Biomechanics (ISB). A simple method based on a leg movement is proposed here to align two inertial measurement units fixed on the thigh and shank segments. Based on the combination of the former alignment and a fusion algorithm, the three-dimensional knee joint angle is measured and compared with a magnetic motion capture system during walking. The proposed system is suitable to measure the absolute knee flexion/extension and abduction/adduction angles with mean (SD) offset errors of -1 degree (1 degree ) and 0 degrees (0.6 degrees ) and mean (SD) root mean square (RMS) errors of 1.5 degrees (0.4 degrees ) and 1.7 degrees (0.5 degrees ). The system is also suitable for the relative measurement of knee internal/external rotation (mean (SD) offset error of 3.4 degrees (2.7 degrees )) with a mean (SD) RMS error of 1.6 degrees (0.5 degrees ). The method described in this paper can be easily adapted in order to measure other joint angular displacements such as elbow or ankle.Journal of Biomechanics 02/2008; 41(5):1029-35. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop an ambulatory system for the three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematics evaluation, which can be used outside a laboratory during long-term monitoring. In order to show the efficacy of this ambulatory system, knee function was analysed using this system, after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion, and after reconstructive surgery. The proposed system was composed of two 3D gyroscopes, fixed on the shank and on the thigh, and a portable data logger for signal recording. The measured parameters were the 3D mean range of motion (ROM) and the healthy knee was used as control. The precision of this system was first assessed using an ultrasound reference system. The repeatability was also estimated. A clinical study was then performed on five unilateral ACL-deficient men (range: 19-36 years) prior to, and a year after the surgery. The patients were evaluated with the IKDC score and the kinematics measurements were carried out on a 30 m walking trial. The precision in comparison with the reference system was 4.4 degrees , 2.7 degrees and 4.2 degrees for flexion-extension, internal-external rotation, and abduction-adduction, respectively. The repeatability of the results for the three directions was 0.8 degrees , 0.7 degrees and 1.8 degrees . The averaged ROM of the five patients' healthy knee were 70.1 degrees (standard deviation (SD) 5.8 degrees), 24.0 degrees (SD 3.0 degrees) and 12.0 degrees (SD 6.3 degrees for flexion-extension, internal-external rotation and abduction-adduction before surgery, and 76.5 degrees (SD 4.1 degrees), 21.7 degrees (SD 4.9 degrees) and 10.2 degrees (SD 4.6 degrees) 1 year following the reconstruction. The results for the pathologic knee were 64.5 degrees (SD 6.9 degrees), 20.6 degrees (SD 4.0 degrees) and 19.7 degrees (8.2 degrees) during the first evaluation, and 72.3 degrees (SD 2.4 degrees), 25.8 degrees (SD 6.4 degrees) and 12.4 degrees (SD 2.3 degrees) during the second one. The performance of the system enabled us to detect knee function modifications in the sagittal and transverse plane. Prior to the reconstruction, the ROM of the injured knee was lower in flexion-extension and internal-external rotation in comparison with the controlateral knee. One year after the surgery, four patients were classified normal (A) and one almost normal (B), according to the IKDC score, and changes in the kinematics of the five patients remained: lower flexion-extension ROM and higher internal-external rotation ROM in comparison with the controlateral knee. The 3D kinematics was changed after an ACL lesion and remained altered one year after the surgery.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2006; 14(7):592-604. · 2.68 Impact Factor