Conference Paper

# Hybrid free-space optical and radio-frequency communications: Outage analysis

Inst. for Telecommun. Res., Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia

DOI: 10.1109/ISIT.2010.5513382 Conference: Information Theory Proceedings (ISIT), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Source: IEEE Xplore

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**ABSTRACT:**The free-space optical channel has the potential to facilitate inexpensive, wireless communication with fiber-like bandwidth under short deployment timelines. However, atmospheric effects can significantly degrade the reliability of a free-space optical link. In particular, atmospheric turbulence causes random fluctuations in the irradiance of the received laser beam, commonly referred to as scintillation. The scintillation process is slow compared to the large data rates typical of optical transmission. As such, we adopt a quasi-static block fading model and study the outage probability of the channel under the assumption of orthogonal pulse-position modulation. We investigate the mitigation of scintillation through the use of multiple lasers and multiple apertures, thereby creating a multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) channel. Non-ideal photodetection is also assumed such that the combined shot noise and thermal noise are considered as signal-independent Additive Gaussian white noise. Assuming perfect receiver channel state information (CSI), we compute the signal-to-noise ratio exponents for the cases when the scintillation is lognormal, exponential and gamma-gamma distributed, which cover a wide range of atmospheric turbulence conditions. Furthermore, we illustrate very large gains, in some cases larger than 15 dB, when transmitter CSI is also available by adapting the transmitted electrical power.IEEE Transactions on Communications 05/2008; · 1.75 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**This article computes the capacity of various idealized soft-decision channels modeling an optical channel using an avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and pulse-position modulation (PPM). The capacity of this optical channel depends in a complicated way on the physical parameters of the APD and the constraints imposed by the PPM orthogonal signaling set. This article attempts to identify and separate the e#ects of several fundamental parameters on the capacity of the APD-detected optical PPM channel. First, an overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) parameter is defined such that the capacity as a function of a bit-normalized version of this SNR drops precipitously toward zero at quasi-brick-wall limits on bit SNR that are numerically the same as the well-understood brick-wall limits for the standard additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A second parameter is used to quantify the e#ects on capacity of one unique facet of the optical PPM channel (as compared with the standard AWGN channel) that causes the noise variance to be higher in signal slots than in nonsignal slots. This nonuniform noise variance yields interesting capacity e#ects even when the channel model is AWGN. A third parameter is used to measure the e#ects on capacity of the di#erence between an AWGN model and a non-Gaussian model proposed by Webb (see reference in [2]) for approximating the statistics of the APD-detected optical channel. Finally, a fourth parameter is used to quantify the blending of a Webb model with a pure AWGN model to account for thermal noise. Numerical results show that the capacity of M-ary orthogonal signaling on the Webb channel exhibits the same brick-wall Shannon limit, (M ln 2)/(M09/2000; - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**This paper deals with arbitrarily distributed finite-power input signals observed through an additive Gaussian noise channel. It shows a new formula that connects the input-output mutual information and the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) achievable by optimal estimation of the input given the output. That is, the derivative of the mutual information (nats) with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is equal to half the MMSE, regardless of the input statistics. This relationship holds for both scalar and vector signals, as well as for discrete-time and continuous-time noncausal MMSE estimation. This fundamental information-theoretic result has an unexpected consequence in continuous-time nonlinear estimation: For any input signal with finite power, the causal filtering MMSE achieved at SNR is equal to the average value of the noncausal smoothing MMSE achieved with a channel whose SNR is chosen uniformly distributed between 0 and SNR.IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 05/2005; · 2.62 Impact Factor

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