Conference Paper

Using HTTP Pipelining to Improve Progressive Download over Multiple Heterogeneous Interfaces

DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2010.5502574 Conference: Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


Today, mobile devices like laptops and cell phones often come equipped with multiple network interfaces, enabling clients to simultaneously connect to independent access networks. Even though applications, such as multimedia streaming and video-on-demand delivery systems, could potentially benefit greatly from the aggregated bandwidth, implementation and standardization challenges have so far hindered the deployment of multilink solutions. Previously, we have explored the benefits of collaboratively using multiple Internet connections to progressively download and play back large multimedia files. In this paper, we present an improved version of our approach that utilizes HTTP's capability of request pipelining in combination with range retrieval requests. While, in our earlier work, the optimal choice of file segmentation size presented a tradeoff between throughput and startup latency, the enhanced solution is able to overcome this tradeoff. The use of very small segments no longer impairs the efficiency of throughput aggregation, which additionally makes our solution robust against link variances and agnostic to network heterogeneity.

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Available from: Dominik Kaspar, Mar 10, 2015
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    • "attention. For instance, Some researchers exploit the availability of HTTP range queries for bandwidth aggregation [20] [21]. In particular, they break an HTTP request into several pieces and open a new TCP connection to get each piece separately, using an HTTP range query requesting each piece. "
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    ABSTRACT: The widespread deployment of various networking technologies, coupled with the exponential increase in end-user data demand, have led to the proliferation of multi-homed, or multi-interface enabled devices. These trends drove researchers to investigate a wide spectrum of solutions, at different layers of the protocol stack, that utilize available interfaces in such devices by aggregating their bandwidth. In this survey paper, we provide an overview and examine the evolution of bandwidth aggregation solutions over time. We begin by describing the bandwidth aggregation problem. We then investigate the common features of proposed bandwidth aggregation systems and break them down into two major categories: layer-dependent and layer-independent features. Afterwards, we discuss the evolution trends in the literature and share some open challenges requiring further research. We end the survey with a brief presentation of related work in tangential research areas.
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    • "Pipelining to improve progressive downloading, the predecessor of HAS [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) is becoming the de-facto standard for Over-The-Top video streaming services. Video content is temporally split into segments which are offered at multiple qualities to the clients. These clients autonomously select the quality layer matching the current state of the network through a quality selection heuristic. Recently, academia and industry have begun evaluating the feasibility of adopting layered video coding for HAS. Instead of downloading one file for a certain quality level, scalable video streaming requires downloading several interdependent layers to obtain the same quality. This implies that the base layer is always downloaded and is available for playout, even when throughput fluctuates and enhancement layers can not be downloaded in time. This layered video approach can help in providing better service quality assurance for video streaming. However, adopting scalable video coding for HAS also leads to other issues, since requesting multiple files over HTTP leads to an increased impact of the end-to-end delay and thus on the service provided to the client. This is even worse in a Live TV scenario where the drift on the live signal should be minimized, requiring smaller segment and buffer sizes. In this paper, we characterize the impact of delay on several measurement-based heuristics. Furthermore, we propose several ways to overcome the end-to-end delay issues, such as parallel and pipelined downloading of segment layers, to provide a higher quality for the video service.
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    • "A possibility for downloading a representation at a higher bitrate would be to use SVC and download the layers of each segment sequentially and omit request to higher layers when a reduction in the throughput has been detected. HTTP pipelining [34] is combined with this technique to avoid idle states in the TCP connection and use the available throughput effectively. Thus, the aforementioned playout disruptions suffered with AVC, if not a low enough media rate is downloaded, would transform to quality adaptation events using SVC. "
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    ABSTRACT: HTTP-based video streaming has been gaining popularity within the recent years. There are multiple benefits of relying on HTTP/TCP connections, such as the usage of the widely deployed network caches to relieve video servers from sending the same content to a high number of users and the avoidance of traversal issues with firewalls and NATs typical for RTP/UDP-based solutions. Therefore, many service providers resort to adopt HTTP streaming as the basis for their services. In this paper, the benefits of using the Scalable Video Coding (SVC) for a HTTP streaming service are shown, and the SVC based approach is compared to the AVC based approach. We show that network resources are more efficiently used and how the benefits of the traditional techniques can even be heightened by adopting the Scalable Video Coding (SVC) as the video codec for adaptive low delay streaming over HTTP. For the latter small playout-buffers are considered hence allowing low media access latency in the delivery chain and it is shown that adaptation is more effectively performed with the SVC based approach.
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