Cognition in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Perspective

Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON, Canada
IEEE Sensors Journal (Impact Factor: 1.48). 04/2011; DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2010.2052033
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT Wireless Sensor Networks are believed to be the enabling technology for Ambient Intelligence. They hold the promise of delivering to a smart communication paradigm which enables setting up an intelligent network capable of handling applications that evolve from user requirements. Cognitive agents capable of making proactive decisions based on learning, reasoning and information sharing when interspersed in sensor networks, may help achieve end-to-end goals of the network even in the presence of multiple constraints and optimization objectives. Cognitive radio at the physical layer of such agents may enable the opportunistic use of the heterogeneous wireless environment. However, research efforts have been discrete and cognitive techniques have focused on improving specific aspects of the network or benefiting specific applications. The main contribution of this paper is providing the vision and advantage of a holistic approach to cognition in sensor networks, which can be achieved by incorporating learning and reasoning in the upper layers, and opportunistic spectrum access at the physical layer. Rather than providing an ostensive survey of cognitive architectures applicable to sensor networks, this paper provides the reader with a framework based on knowledge and cognition that can help achieve end-to-end goals of application-specific sensor networks.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive sensor network (CSN) is a promising paradigm to address the spectrum scarcity problem in traditional wireless sensor networks. Reliable spectrum sensing is essential to enable the normal operation of a CSN. Existing researches showed that by exploiting spatial diversity, cooperative sensing can greatly improve the detection performance over non-cooperative sensing in opportunity-homogeneous environment. At a given time, cognitive sensors at different locations, however, may experience heterogeneous spectrum opportunities making the cooperation among cognitive sensors intractable. In this paper, we show the limitations and drawbacks of merely using temporal-domain detection performance metrics and introduce novel spatio-temporal detection performance metrics to guide the design of joint spatio-temporal spectrum sensing. An efficient one-bit hard decision based three-phase (i.e., a global cooperation phase, a local cooperation phase, and a joint decision phase) spatio-temporal sensing algorithm is proposed and numerical results demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 01/2013; 13(11):4247-4255. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An ultra-low power wake-up radio receiver using no oscillators is described. The radio utilizes an envelope detector followed by a baseband amplifier and is fabricated in a 130-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The receiver is preceded by a passive radio-frequency voltage transformer, also providing 50 Ω antenna matching, fabricated as transmission lines on the FR4 chip carrier. A sensitivity of -47 dBm with 200 kb/s on-off keying modulation is measured at a current consumption of 2.3 μ A from a 1 V supply. No trimming is used. The receiver accepts a -13 dBm continuous wave blocking signal, or modulated blockers 6 dB below the sensitivity limit, with no loss of sensitivity.
    Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, IEEE Journal on. 01/2013; 3(1):5-12.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project is to inform the Government authority at Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) about the level of sewer and about the opening of the lid of sewer. A Zigbee based Wireless Sensor Nodes which are connected through mesh protocol are formed. Data gatherer collects the information from different sensor nodes and communicates with the remote user terminal via GSM/GPRS. Secondly, the public is informed of the opening of the lid through the buzzer which is placed in the lamppost nearby. Finally, the fault diagnostics and prevention is made possible due to the mesh topology since it will operate even when there is connection failure due to a single sensor.
    Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 2013 International Conference on; 01/2013